Duarte J.P.,Polo Universitario
Thin-Walled Structures | Year: 2014
This paper formalizes the domain of all and only manufacturable open cold-formed steel (CFS) profiles aimed at improving their strength capability in the development of new products. A Genetic Algorithm is applied over this domain to get a set of best solutions from structural and constructive viewpoints. A basic review is carried out with regard to (i) Shape Grammar, (ii) Finite Strip Method-based elastic buckling analysis, (iii) Direct Strength Method-based structural strength computation and (iv) modified procedure of the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm. CFS-manufacturing is defined as a language and its general grammar is presented. This grammar-based model responds to requisites of descriptive power, simplicity of implementation, and customization to specific needs. The CFS grammar has been implemented using scripting languages available in pre-existing CAD and CAE applications. Implementation includes generation, visualization, analysis and improvement capabilities. Results show that innovative shapes with improved strength could be generated from the finite set of allowable manufacturing grammar rules encoded by the grammar. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Centola M.,Polo Universitario |
Evers R.,U.S. National Institutes of Health |
Lardo A.C.,Johns Hopkins University
Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance | Year: 2012
Background: Clinical studies implementing late gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) studies suggest that the peri-infarct zone (PIZ) contains a mixture of viable and non-viable myocytes, and is associated with greater susceptibility to ventricular tachycardia induction and adverse cardiac outcomes. However, CMR data assessing the temporal formation and functional remodeling characteristics of this complex region are limited. We intended to characterize early temporal changes in scar morphology and regional function in the PIZ. Methods and results. CMR studies were performed at six time points up to 90 days after induction of myocardial infarction (MI) in eight minipigs with reperfused, anterior-septal infarcts. Custom signal density threshold algorithms, based on the remote myocardium, were applied to define the infarct core and PIZ region for each time point. After the initial post-MI edema subsided, the PIZ decreased by 54% from day 10 to day 90 (p = 0.04). The size of infarct scar expanded by 14% and thinned by 56% from day 3 to 12 weeks (p = 0.004 and p < 0.001, respectively). LVEDV increased from 34.7. 2.2 ml to 47.8 3.0 ml (day3 and week12, respectively; p < 0.001). At 30 days post-MI, regional circumferential strain was increased between the infarct scar and the PIZ (-2.1 0.6 and -6.8 0.9, respectively;* p < 0.05). Conclusions: The PIZ is dynamic and decreases in mass following reperfused MI. Tensile forces in the PIZ undergo changes following MI. Remodeling characteristics of the PIZ may provide mechanistic insights into the development of life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death post-MI. © 2012 Schuleri et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Matos L.M.C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro |
Leal I.C.R.,Polo Universitario |
De Souza R.O.M.A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic | Year: 2011
Diacylglycerols (DAG) are commonly used in different purity levels for food, medicine and cosmetic industries. Several approaches are found over the literature on DAG production under lipase-catalyzed reactions among which are highlighted: glycerol sterification, vegetable oils' glycerolysis and selective hydrolysis. Results obtained palm oil partial hydrolysis catalyzed by PS Amano IM under microwave irradiation show that DAG can be produced through short-term reactions and moderated yields (5 min, 30%). The DAG production using packed bed reactors under conventional heating and continuous flow conditions is more efficient allowing us to produce 128 g in 24 h with flow rate as a key feature. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Ardizzone S.,Polo Universitario |
Cassinotti A.,Polo Universitario |
De Franchis R.,Polo Universitario
Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs | Year: 2012
Introduction: Recent insight into the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis have led to the development of new treatment options. A better understanding of IBD pathophysiology has progressively led to a more frequent use of immunosuppressants and biologics. Areas covered: The use of the conventional immunomodulators, such as azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine, methotrexate, cyclosporine and tacrolimus, and anti-TNF-α agents, such as infliximab and adalimumab, in the treatment of ulcerative colitis are reviewed. Moreover, the ongoing studies evaluating the efficacy of emerging immunosuppressants in treating patients with ulcerative colitis are discussed. An effort is made to explore some critical areas in which early and more diffuse use of these agents may be advocated. Expert opinion: Ulcerative colitis is a chronic condition mainly affecting young people in their more productive age, and determining high indirect costs to the patient and to society. Thus, there is a need for optimizing and renewing our traditional therapeutic approach to UC, and new therapies beyond conventional treatment options possibly aiming to change the poor clinical course of many patients with ulcerative colitis. Keeping in mind this potentially new therapeutic scenario, there are some critical areas in which early and more diffuse use of conventional and emerging new immunomodulators is advocated. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.
Gill J.L.,Roslin Institute |
Bishop S.C.,Roslin Institute |
McCorquodale C.,Roslin Institute |
Williams J.L.,Polo Universitario |
Wiener P.,Roslin Institute
Meat Science | Year: 2010
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 10 candidate genes previously shown to be associated with quality traits in pigs and cattle. The data set comprised 28 traits recorded on a commercial population of 536 Aberdeen Angus-cross beef cattle. Among the traits, 20 were carcass and sirloin quality related, one mechanical measure of tenderness, and the remaining seven were taste panel assessed sensory traits. The candidate genes studied included growth hormone (GH) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). Association analysis showed that 13 of the 28 SNPs were significantly associated with at least one of the traits. Some of these were novel (POMC and mechanical tenderness), whilst others confirmed previous results (GH and eye muscle length).Following validation in other populations and breeds, these markers could be incorporated into breeding programs to increase the rate of improvement in carcass and meat quality traits. © 2010 The American Meat Science Association.
Leach R.J.,Roslin Institute |
Leach R.J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
O'Neill R.G.,Fisheries and Food |
Fitzpatrick J.L.,Moredun Research Institute |
And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
Infectious disease is an important problem for animal breeders, farmers and governments worldwide. One approach to reducing disease is to breed for resistance. This linkage study used a Charolais-Holstein F2 cattle cross population (n = 501) which was genotyped for 165 microsatellite markers (covering all autosomes) to search for associations with phenotypes for Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRSV) specific total-IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 concentrations at several time-points pre- and post-BRSV vaccination. Regions of the bovine genome which influenced the immune response induced by BRSV vaccination were identified, as well as regions associated with the clearance of maternally derived BRSV specific antibodies. Significant positive correlations were detected within traits across time, with negative correlations between the pre- and post-vaccination time points. The whole genome scan identified 27 Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) on 13 autosomes. Many QTL were associated with the Thymus Helper 1 linked IgG2 response, especially at week 2 following vaccination. However the most significant QTL, which reached 5% genome-wide significance, was on BTA 17 for IgG1, also 2 weeks following vaccination. All animals had declining maternally derived BRSV specific antibodies prior to vaccination and the levels of BRSV specific antibody prior to vaccination were found to be under polygenic control with several QTL detected. Heifers from the same population (n = 195) were subsequently immunised with a 40-mer Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus peptide (FMDV) in a previous publication. Several of these QTL associated with the FMDV traits had overlapping peak positions with QTL in the current study, including the QTL on BTA23 which included the bovine Major Histocompatibility Complex (BoLA), and QTL on BTA9 and BTA24, suggesting that the genes underlying these QTL may control responses to multiple antigens. These results lay the groundwork for future investigations to identify the genes underlying the variation in clearance of maternal antibody and response to vaccination. © 2012 Leach et al.
Allen A.R.,Agri Food and Biosciences Institute of Northern Ireland |
Minozzi G.,Polo Universitario |
Glass E.J.,Roslin Institute |
Skuce R.A.,Agri Food and Biosciences Institute of Northern Ireland |
And 3 more authors.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2010
The prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in the UK remains a significant economic burden and problem for the agri-food industry. Much effort has been directed towards improving diagnostics, finding vaccine candidates and assessing the usefulness of badger culling. The contribution that host genotype makes to disease outcome has, until recently, been overlooked; yet, it is biologically untenable that genetic variation does not play a role. In this review, we highlight the evidence, past and present, for a role of host genetics in determining susceptibility to BTB in livestock. We then address some of the major issues surrounding the design of future studies tasked with finding the exact causative genetic variation underpinning the TB susceptibility phenotype. Finally, we discuss some of the potential future benefits, and problems, that a knowledge of the genetic component to BTB resistance/susceptibility may bring to the agricultural industries and the wider scientific community. © 2010 The Royal Society.
Minozzi G.,Polo Universitario |
Buggiotti L.,Instituto Sperimentale Italiano Lazzaro Spallanzani |
Buggiotti L.,University of Tuscia |
Stella A.,Polo Universitario |
And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010
Background: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes chronic enteritis in a wide range of animal species. In cattle, MAP causes a chronic disease called Johne's disease, or paratuberculosis, that is not treatable and the efficacy of vaccine control is controversial. The clinical phase of the disease is characterised by diarrhoea, weight loss, drop in milk production and eventually death. Susceptibility to MAP infection is heritable with heritability estimates ranging from 0.06 to 0.10. There have been several studies over the last few years that have identified genetic loci putatively associated with MAP susceptibility, however, with the availability of genome-wide high density SNP maker panels it is now possible to carry out association studies that have higher precision. Methodology/Principal Findings: The objective of the current study was to localize genes having an impact on Johne's disease susceptibility using the latest bovine genome information and a high density SNP panel (Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip) to perform a case/control, genome-wide association analysis. Samples from MAP case and negative controls were selected from field samples collected in 2007 and 2008 in the province of Lombardy, Italy. Cases were defined as animals serologically positive for MAP by ELISA. In total 966 samples were genotyped: 483 MAP ELISA positive and 483 ELISA negative. Samples were selected randomly among those collected from 119 farms which had at least one positive animal. Conclusion/Significance: The analysis of the genotype data identified several chromosomal regions associated with disease status: a region on chromosome 12 with high significance (P<5×10-6), while regions on chromosome 9, 11, and 12 had moderate significance (P<5×10-5). These results provide evidence for genetic loci involved in the humoral response to MAP. Knowledge of genetic variations related to susceptibility will facilitate the incorporation of this information into breeding programmes for the improvement of health status. © 2010 Minozzi et al.
Asero R.,Ambulatorio di Allergologia |
Casalone R.,Polo Universitario |
Iemoli E.,L Sacco Hospital
European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2014
A case of immediate and definitive response to a single dose of omalizumab in a child with severe ciclosporin-resistant chronic urticaria is reported.
Wiener P.,Roslin Institute |
Edriss M.A.,Isfahan University of Technology |
Williams J.L.,Polo Universitario |
Waddington D.,Roslin Institute |
And 3 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2011
Background: Scanning the genome with high density SNP markers has become a standard approach for identifying regions of the genome showing substantial between-population genetic differentiation, and thus evidence of diversifying selection. Such regions may contain genes of large phenotypic effect. However, few studies have attempted to address the power or efficacy of such an approach.Results: In this study, the patterns of allele frequency differences between two cattle breeds based on the Bovine HapMap study were compared with statistical evidence for QTL based on a linkage mapping study of an experimental population formed by a cross between the same breeds. Concordance between the two datasets was seen for chromosomes carrying QTL with strong statistical support, such as BTA5 and BTA18, which carry genes associated with coat color. For these chromosomes, there was a correspondence between the strength of the QTL signal along the chromosome and the degree of genetic differentiation between breeds. However, such an association was not seen in a broader comparison that also included chromosomes carrying QTL with lower significance levels. In addition, other chromosomal regions with substantial QTL effects did not include markers showing extreme between-breed genetic differentiation. Furthermore, the overall consistency between the two studies was weak, with low genome-wide correlation between the statistical values obtained in the linkage mapping study and between-breed genetic differentiation from the HapMap study.Conclusions: These results suggest that genomic diversity scans are capable of detecting regions associated with qualitative traits but may be limited in their power to detect regions associated with quantitative phenotypic differences between populations, which may depend on the marker resolution of the study and the level of LD in the populations under investigation. © 2011 Wiener et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.