Polo Regional Centro Sul

Piracicaba, Brazil

Polo Regional Centro Sul

Piracicaba, Brazil
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Vitti A.C.,Polo Regional Centro Sul | Trivelin P.C.O.,University of Sao Paulo | Ferreira D.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Otto R.,University of Sao Paulo | Fortes C.,University of Sao Paulo
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2011

The objective of this work was to evaluate the recovery, by plant cane, of the nitrogen ( 15N) from urea and from sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) crop residues - straw and root system - incorporated into the soil. The experiment was settled in 2005/2006 with the sugarcane cultivar SP81 3250. At planting, microplots of 2 m length and 1.5 m width were installed, and N applications were done with 80 kg ha -1 N (urea with 5.05% in 15N atoms) and 14 Mg ha -1 crop residues - 9 Mg ha -1 of sugarcane straw (SS) and 5 Mg ha -1 of root system (RS), labeled with 15N (1.07 and 0.81% in 15N atoms, respectively). The total N accumulation by plants was determined during the crop cycle. Although the N use by shoot from crop residue mineralization (PA and SR) increased significantly over time, this source hardly contributed to crop nutrition. The recovery of the 15N-urea, 15N-SS and 15N-RS by plant cane was 30.3±3.7%, 13.9±4.5% and 6.4±0.9%, respectively, representing 15.9, 4.7 and 1.4% of total nitrogen uptake by shoot.

Trivelin P.C.O.,University of Sao Paulo | Franco H.C.J.,CTBE - Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory | Otto R.,University of Sao Paulo | Ferreira D.A.,CTBE - Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory | And 4 more authors.
Scientia Agricola | Year: 2013

The area under mechanized sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) harvesting is expanding in Brazil, increasing the return of trash to the soil. The main questions regarding this management are: (i) after adopting unburned mechanical harvesting, how long will it take to observe decreases in fertilizer requirements, (ii) what will be the magnitude of this decrease and, (iii) the impact in the short run of removing trash for energy purposes in the nutrient cycling? This study aimed to build an N prediction model for long term assessment of the contribution of sugarcane crop residues to sugarcane nutrition and to evaluate the cycling of other nutrients derived from crop residues. Keeping crop residues over the soil will increase soil N stock and N recovery by sugarcane, reaching equilibrium after 40 years with recovery of approximately 40 kg ha-1 year-1 of N. Removing trash for energy production will decrease the potential reduction in N fertilizer requirement. Of the total nutrients in the trash, 75% of the K2O (81 kg ha-1 year-1) and 50% of the N (31 kg ha-1 year-1) are in the tops, indicating the importance of maintaining tops in the soil to sustain soil fertility. Because the input data employed in the simulations are representative of the conditions in Southeast Brazil, these results might not be defnitive for situations not represented in the experiments used in the study, but the model produced is useful to forecast changes that occur in the soil under different trash management.

da Silva A.,University of Sao Paulo | Rossetto R.,Polo Regional Centro Sul | Bonnecine J.,Federal University of São Carlos | Piemonte M.,Polo Regional Centro Sul | Muraoka T.,University of Sao Paulo
Sugar Tech | Year: 2013

The increasing ethanol production brings many advantages to Brazil. However, it generates high quantities of vinasse from 10 to 15 l per liter of alcohol produced. This residue is applied as a fertilizer in sugarcane crops but, it presents a potential risk to soil quality when high doses of vinasse are applied in the same area over years. So, one solution would be to transport it to distant locations, but this would mean an increase in costs. Thus, concentrated vinasse, wherein the volume is reduced by evaporation process, becomes a viable alternative and is being increasingly used by sugarcane mills in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the net nitrogen mineralization and potential nitrogen mineralization of soil that received three doses of concentrated and not concentrated vinasse. The not concentrated vinasse is a good alternative to be applied, but higher doses promote N losses by denitrification due to the high water content. The highest values of potential nitrogen mineralization and, lowest values of constant of mineralization in the treatments with concentrated vinasse indicate that this residue releases N at a slower speed than in treatments with not concentrated vinasse, suggesting that there will be N availability in the subsequent crops. © 2012 Society for Sugar Research & Promotion.

Cidade F.W.,University of Campinas | Vigna B.B.Z.,Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation Embrapa Southeast Livestock | de Souza F.H.D.,Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation Embrapa Southeast Livestock | Valls J.F.M.,Embrapa Genetic Resources and Biotechnology | And 4 more authors.
BMC Genetics | Year: 2013

Background: Paspalum (Poaceae) is an important genus of the tribe Paniceae, which includes several species of economic importance for foraging, turf and ornamental purposes, and has a complex taxonomical classification. Because of the widespread interest in several species of this genus, many accessions have been conserved in germplasm banks and distributed throughout various countries around the world, mainly for the purposes of cultivar development and cytogenetic studies. Correct identification of germplasms and quantification of their variability are necessary for the proper development of conservation and breeding programs. Evaluation of microsatellite markers in different species of Paspalum conserved in a germplasm bank allowed assessment of the genetic differences among them and assisted in their proper botanical classification.Results: Seventeen new polymorphic microsatellites were developed for Paspalum atratum Swallen and Paspalum notatum Flüggé, twelve of which were transferred to 35 Paspalum species and used to evaluate their variability. Variable degrees of polymorphism were observed within the species. Based on distance-based methods and a Bayesian clustering approach, the accessions were divided into three main species groups, two of which corresponded to the previously described Plicatula and Notata Paspalum groups. In more accurate analyses of P. notatum accessions, the genetic variation that was evaluated used thirty simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci and revealed seven distinct genetic groups and a correspondence of these groups to the three botanical varieties of the species (P. notatum var. notatum, P. notatum var. saurae and P. notatum var. latiflorum).Conclusions: The molecular genetic approach employed in this study was able to distinguish many of the different taxa examined, except for species that belong to the Plicatula group, which has historically been recognized as a highly complex group. Our molecular genetic approach represents a valuable tool for species identification in the initial assessment of germplasm as well as for characterization, conservation and successful species hybridization. © 2013 Cidade et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Siqueira M.V.B.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Marconi T.G.,University of Campinas | Bonatelli M.L.,University of Sao Paulo | Zucchi M.I.,Polo Regional Centro Sul | Veasey E.A.,University of Sao Paulo
American Journal of Botany | Year: 2011

Premise of the study: Dioscorea alata L. is one of the most widely distributed species of the genus in the humid and semihumid tropics and is associated with traditional agriculture. Only a few microsatellite markers have been developed so far for this and other Dioscorea species. Methods and Results: We isolated 14 codominant polymorphic microsatellite markers using a microsatellite-enriched genomic library technique. Ten microsatellite loci were selected, and 80 D. alata accessions from different regions in Brazil were evaluated with nine polymorphic loci. The polymorphism information content (PIC) varied from 0.39 to 0.78 and the power discrimination (PD) ranged from 0.15 to 0.91. Six of the markers showed transferability for the species D. bulbifera, D. cayenensis-D. rotundata, and D. trifida. Conclusions: The SSR markers obtained are an important tool for further studies aiming to characterize the genetic diversity in D. alata and other Dioscorea spp. accessions. © 2011 Botanical Society of America.

PubMed | Federal University of Paraná, Polo Regional Centro Sul, University of Campinas and University of Sao Paulo
Type: | Journal: MicrobiologyOpen | Year: 2017

Giardia duodenalis is a flagellated intestinal protozoan responsible for infections in various hosts including humans and several wild and domestic animals. Few studies have correlated environmental contamination and clinical infections in the same region. The aim of this study was to compare groups of Giardia duodenalis from clinical and environmental sources through population genetic analyses to verify haplotype sharing and the degree of genetic similarity among populations from clinical and environmental sources in the metropolitan region of Campinas. The results showed high diversity of haplotypes and substantial genetic similarity between clinical and environmental groups of G.duodenalis. We demonstrated sharing of Giardia genotypes among the different populations studied. The comparison between veterinary and human sequences led us to identify new zoonotic genotypes, including human isolates from genetic assemblage C. The application of a population genetic analysis in epidemiological studies allows quantification of the degree of genetic similarity among populations of Giardia duodenalis from different sources of contamination. The genetic similarity of Giardia isolates among human, veterinary, and environmental groups reinforced the correlation between clinical and environmental isolates in this region, which is of great importance for public health.

Hippler F.W.R.,Instituto Agronomico | Moreira M.,Polo Regional Centro Sul
Bragantia | Year: 2013

Peanut grains production responds positively when associated to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), but it is necessary to determine its dependence on phosphorus (P) supply for in different species in plants. The aim of this study was to determine the mycorrhizal dependency of Arachis hypogea L. to different P levels and to evaluate the development of host and endophyte after colonization. A greenhouse experiment was carried out in completely randomized design, with two mycorrhizal fungi species (Gigaspora rosea and Glomus clarum) and a control without the fungus, and also with different P levels applied to the soil (0, 75, 150 and 250 mg kg-1 of P). After 50 days of groundnuts germination, there were evaluated dry weight (DW), root colonization, number of spores in the soil, mycorrhizal dependency and available P. The peanut plants showed mycorrhizal dependency when inoculated with G. rosea in low supply of P and for G. clarum only in the absence of the nutrient. The inoculation with G. rosea produced higher DW with 75 mg kg-1 of P (7.2 g per plant), whereas there was an increase in the accumulation of P in shoots up to the highest dose (250 mg kg-1) of P. Although G. clarum provided higher number of spores and root colonization ratio, it had the lowest plant growth and also lower P use efficiency by shoots.

Ronque M.U.V.,University of Campinas | Azevedo-Silva M.,University of Campinas | Mori G.M.,University of Campinas | Mori G.M.,Polo Regional Centro Sul | And 2 more authors.
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2016

The closely related Camponotus renggeri and Camponotus rufipes (subgenus Myrmothrix) often live in sympatry in the Brazilian 'cerrado' savannah, and are distinguished by nuances in their blackish body colour and by the colour of the legs. Variation in morphological characters, however, makes species separation difficult and it has been suggested that the two species should be merged into one. As appropriate species identification is essential for studies in ecology and evolutionary biology, here we examine how natural history data (habitat preference, nesting biology) and molecular tools (nuclear and mitochondrial markers) perform in distinguishing sympatric populations of C.renggeri and C.rufipes. In our study area, C.rufipes was only seen in cerrado sensu stricto (scrub of shrubs and trees), whereas C.renggeri occurred in cerrado sensu stricto and cerradão (closed woodland). Camponotus renggeri nested underground or in fallen/erect dead trunks, whereas C.rufipes constructed distinctive nests of dry straw. Nest persistence through time was higher in C.rufipes, especially in the hot/rainy season. Nest distribution was random in C.renggeri and aggregated in C.rufipes. Molecular data consistently showed that, regardless of the source of genetic variation, the uppermost hierarchical level of divergence is observed between species, unambiguously differentiating the individuals identified as C.renggeri and C.rufipes as two independent evolutionary lineages. Mitochondrial data throughout the species' geographical ranges further confirmed a consistent genetic divergence between C.renggeri and C.rufipes along their distribution in Brazil. Our integrated approach combining morphological traits with natural history and molecular data confirms that C.renggeri and C.rufipes are valid species that can be separated in our study area relatively well. © 2016 The Linnean Society of London.

Azevedo-Silva M.,University of Campinas | Mori G.M.,University of Campinas | Mori G.M.,Polo Regional Centro Sul | Souza A.P.,University of Campinas | Oliveira P.S.,University of Campinas
Conservation Genetics Resources | Year: 2015

Camponotus renggeri and C. rufipes are two important ants of the Brazilian Cerrado savanna, a threatened Biome. Thirty-one microsatellites were characterized and cross amplified for both species. 27 loci were polymorphic for C. renggeri (HE = 0.575 and HO = 0.575) and 24 for C. rufipes (HE = 0.567 and HO = 0.564). The average number of alleles per locus was 6.9 for C. renggeri and 5.9 for C. rufipes. The high levels of genetic diversity of these novel markers make them useful tools for genetic and evolutionary studies involving these ecologically important ants, and for the conservation of the Cerrado. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Conte M.,University of Campinas | Zucchi M.I.,Polo Regional Centro Sul | Andrade G.V.,Federal University of Maranhão | Souza A.P.,University of Campinas | Recco-Pimentel S.M.,University of Campinas
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2011

Various species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group of frogs are difficult to distinguish morphologically, making molecular analysis an attractive alternative for indentifying members of this group, which is considered to be at risk because of loss of habitat. The genetic structure of natural populations of P. ephippifer and P. albonotatus species was investigated and analyzed, together with that of five previously studied populations of P. cuvieri. Nine microsatellite loci were used in the analyses. The overall G ST value (0.46) revealed high genetic variation among the populations, as expected for different species. Bayesian analysis implemented by the STRUCTURE software clustered the seven populations into seven groups (K = 7). All the P. albonotatus and P. ephippifer specimens were grouped into a single cluster, bothspecies showing clear differentiation from P. cuvieri. The different grouping based on these microsatellites of some P. cuvieri individuals from Porto Nacional and from Passo Fundo suggests that they could be a new species, indicating a necessity for taxonomic reevaluation. Despite the intrinsic difficulties in analyzing closely related species, the nine microsatellite loci were found to be adequate for distinguishing these three species of the P. cuvieri group and their populations. © FUNPEC-RP.

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