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Firmino A.C.,Sao Paulo State University | Fischer I.H.,Polo Regional Centro Oeste | Tozze Junior H.J.,Coordenadoria de Defesa Agropecuaria | Rosa D.D.,Sao Paulo State University | Furtado E.L.,Sao Paulo State University
Summa Phytopathologica

The Fusicoccum genus of fungi are known to cause stem-end rot in various fruit plants, such as mango, guava, peach and avocado. Several species of this fungus are reported attacking avocado (Persea americana) in several countries. Based on this information, the present study aimed to identify species of Fusicoccum associated with rot in avocado fruits in the State of São Paulo. Samples were collected (fruits with rot symptoms) from regions of Bauru, Bernadino de Campos and Piraju. All isolates obtained had its pathogenicity confirmed by inoculation of healthy avocado fruits. After confirming its pathogenicity, these isolates had their DNA extracted and the ITS-5.8S rDNA region was amplified. After editing, these sequences were used to search for similar sequences in the NCBI. Eleven samples were identified as Neofusicoccum parvum and others were identified as Botryosphaeria dothidea (F. aesculi). Both species were found in all regions of collection. © 2016, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP). All Rights Reserved. Source

da Silva A.B.,University of Jose do Rosario Vellano | dos Reis C.O.,University of Jose do Rosario Vellano | Cazetta J.O.,Sao Paulo State University | Carlin S.D.,Polo Regional Centro Oeste | And 2 more authors.
Bioscience Journal

Micropropagation is an alternative to produce orchid plants in large scale. However, this process presents losses during acclimatization. Exogenous proline use in vitro plant tissue culture can reduce the stress of the plant acclimatization phase. We aimed to verify the growth of orchids in different micropropagation systems with the addition of proline in the culture medium. Cattleya walkeriana plants were obtained from the germination of seeds in culture medium. Seeds were germinated in MS medium, added 20 g. L-1 of sucrose, solidified with 6 g. L-1 of agar and pH adjusted for 5,8. The cultures were incubated in a growth room with temperature of 24 ± 2 0C, under photoperiod of 16 h. After 5 months, 1-cm long seedlings were placed in a culture vessel according to the treatments, which were composed of two micropropagation systems (conventional and natural ventilation) and three proline concentrations (0, 1, and 2 g·L-1). The experiment was carried out in an entirely randomized design consisting of a 2 × 3 factorial, for a total of 6 treatments, each with 5 replicates. The natural ventilation system with the use of proline (1 g·L-1) promoted higher dry mass accumulation and better control of water loss by plants. © 2016, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia. All rights reserved. Source

Braga A.R.C.,Mineiro Institute of Agriculture IMA | Langoni H.,Sao Paulo State University | Lucheis S.B.,Polo Regional Centro Oeste
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases

Background: This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence ofLeishmaniaspp. in dogs and cats from Botucatu, São Paulo state, and Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil, by the association of three diagnostic tests: blood culture in liver infusion tryptose medium, immunofluorescent antibody test and polymerase chain reaction. Fifty blood samples of dogs and cats from the Center for Zoonosis Control in Campo Grande, an area endemic for canine visceral leishmaniasis, were collected randomly, as well as canine and feline blood samples from the Municipal Kennel and Animal Protection Association in Botucatu, currently considered a transmission-free, non-endemic area.Results: Of the 50 dog blood cultures from Botucatu, three (6%) were positive and of the 50 cats, two (4%) were positive. In Campo Grande, 29 dog blood cultures (58%) were positive and all (100%) cats negative by this test. Polymerase chain reaction detectedLeishmaniaspp. in 100% of dog and cat samples from Botucatu but found all the cats from Campo Grande to be negative. On the other hand, 36 dogs from Campo Grande were positive (72%) by the same technique. Immunofluorescent antibody test in Botucatu found 100% of dogs and cats non-reactive, while in Campo Grande, it detected positivity in 32 dogs (64%) and 15 cats (30%).Conclusions: The results show the importance of not only continuous epidemiological surveillance in areas not endemic for leishmaniasis, but also research for accurate diagnosis of this zoonosis. © 2014 Braga et al. Source

Sugarcane is a very important economic crop in Brazil. The effects of abiotic stresses cause negative reduction of the productivity in the sugarcane industry. In order to identify indicators of stresses tolerance, two physiological variables were evaluated, nitrate reductase activity and chlorophyll contents in young plants of sugarcane, cv. IAC91-5155. The simultaneous effect of abiotic stresses of high occurrence in Brazilian soils are, water deficiency and aluminum toxicity. The plants were submitted to three treatments of water availability (% field capacity, FC): no stress (70% FC), moderate stress (55% FC), and extreme stress (40% FC); and three acidity treatments in the soil (base saturation, V%): no acidity (V=55%), average acidity (V=33%), and high acidity (V=23%). The experiment was carried out in greenhouse, with 29.7±4.3°C and 75±10% RH. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, in 3×3 factorial arrangement, with four replicates. After 60 days, nitrate reductase activity and chlorophyll contents were evaluated in the diagnostic leaf. The results demonstrate that the response of plants to a combination of drought and aluminum toxicity, similar to the conditions in many natural environments, is different from the response of plants to each of these stresses applied individually, as typically tested in the laboratory. The nitrate reductase activity can be used as a biochemical-physiological marker of water deficiency while chlorophyll contents can be used as a biochemical-physiological marker of both of them, water deficiency or aluminum toxicity in soil. Both parameters can not be as a biochemical-physiological marker for acclimation of young plants of sugarcane cv. IAC91-5155, under the combined stresses. Source

Camolesi M.R.,SGS Do Brazil Ltda | Neves C.S.V.J.,State University Londrina | Martins A.N.,Polo Regional Centro Oeste | Suguino E.,Polo Regional Centro Leste
Revista Brasileirade Ciencias Agrarias

The recommendation of new cultivars of banana (Musa sp.) must be based on studies of characterization and evaluation of these materials in different ecosystems. This study aimed to evaluate genotypes of banana crop, with respect to the vegetation, phenological and productive behavior in the environmental conditions in the municipality of Assis, São Paulo state. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with seven treatments and three replications. The cultivars evaluated were Caipira, Thap Maeo, Prata Zulu, Preciosa, Maravilha, Nanicão IAC 2001 and Nanicão Jangada. The cultivar Nanicão Jangada showed better performance for most vegetative characters and production. The cultivars Prata Zulu and Thap Maeo showed yield behavior similar to Nanicão Jangada, being a good alternative for cultivation in the region. The cultivars Preciosa and Maravilha showed early maturity behavior in comparison with other genotypes, while Nanicão IAC 2001, Nanicão Jangada, Caipira, and Thap Maeo presented intermediary cycles. The cultivar Prata Zulu had the longest cycle, with the longest planting-flowering period, but the shortest flowering-harvest period. Source

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