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Zinc is mainly produced in the pirometalurgical process that uses Imperial Smelting Technological Process (ISP). In this process, two main phases can be distinguished: preparation of sinter and reductive fusion of sinter in a shaft furnace. A by-product of zinc production process is low-calorific dust-containing gas from the shaft furnace. The lower heating value of the gas is about 3-3.8 MJ/Nm3. Currently, by-produced gas is commonly used in the blast heaters, and the excess is combusted and released into the atmosphere. The paper presents possibilities of low-calorific by-produced gas utilization to generate both electricity and heat in the gas turbine and internal combustion engines. Moreover the possibility of gas utilization to produce coolness in absorption chillers is presented. The paper presents a detailed analysis of usability of by-produced gas from shaft furnace for zinc smelter conditions. Source

High temperature and heavily dusted process gases with low calorific value are by-products in copper metallurgy. They must be afterburnt, cooled and dedusted before directing them to atmosphere. Low concentration of combustible components in such gases causes problems while afterburning. Dedusting process parameters require precise control of the temperature of these gases before dust collection plants. One of the most important problem related to utilization of the process gases is to dispose waste heat generated during their cooling. Rationalization of the afterburning and cooling processes needs an accurate mathematical description of occurring phenomena. It requires the elaboration of a mathematical model describing the most significant processes occurring while the utilization of the gases. The paper presents a mathematical model of afterburning and cooling of the process gases generated during reduction of slag from a fluidized-bed furnace in an electric furnace at a copper plant. The CFD Ansys software was used to elaborate this model. The model describes the most significant phenomena occurring in the afterburning chamber and water coolers surrounding its lower part. It was applied to carry out numerical simulations for exemplary mass flow of the gases from the electric furnace in order to determine the area of afterburning carbon monoxide and heat flux transferred to water during the cooling process. Calculation results obtained on the basis of the model and formulated conclusions are presented. Source

Milejski A.,Politechniki Slaskiej w Gliwicach | Rusinowski H.,Politechniki Slaskiej w Gliwicach
Rynek Energii | Year: 2010

Dusty gases, which temperature exceed 1000°C, are often a result of processes occurring in the technological furnaces. They contain combustible components, mainly carbon monoxide. Gases from the shaft, anode or electric furnace in copper metallurgy are examples of such products. Process gases require afterburning, cooling and dust removal in order to dispose them. The afterburning process takes place in the afterburning chamber or in the channel from waste heat boilers. Then gases are cooled in water and/or atmospheric coolers. Dedusting takes place in electrostatic precipitator, bag filters or cyclones. The efficiency improvement of disposal process is very important to reduce the energy consumption of technological processes. However, it requires the determination of optimal parameters for afterburning and cooling. Inappropriate afterburning parameters may lead to incomplete combustion. The excess of air increases the amount of gases and power of exhaust fans. The paper presents the method and results of the mathematical modeling of afterburning process of gases from electric furnace in copper smelter. The mathematical model of the afterburning chamber was created using Fluent CFD package. This software allows to simulate physical and chemical phenomena in fluid mechanics. Source

Rusinowski H.,Politechniki Slaskiej w Gliwicach | Pluta L.,Politechniki Slaskiej w Gliwicach | Milejski A.,Politechniki Slaskiej w Gliwicach
Rynek Energii | Year: 2010

Gases with a low-heating value of 1.2 ÷ 18 MJ/Nm3 and variable temperature are by-products of many industrial processes. Blast furnace gas and converter gas from ferrous metallurgy, gas from the shaft furnace and gas from the electric furnace from non-ferrous metallurgy are examples of these gases. Technological gases with a low-heating value about 4÷18 MJ/Nm 3 are low calorific fuels. Such kind of fuels can be utilized in gas turbine or internal combustion engine. Gases within lower heating value range of 1.2 ÷ 4 MJ/Nm3 can not be used as single fuel. Such kind of gases should be burnt out. The paper presents typical methods for energy recovery from technological low-calorific gases. Source

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