Szkutnik J.,Politechnika Czcstochowska
Rynek Energii | Year: 2010
The report presents the complex proposal for the implementation of the demand side management (DSM) in the Polish energy sector. The issue of DSM is well known in the world, European and domestic dimensions. The experience of western countries shows that at least to some extent, the DSM strategy is already implemented there. However, Polish experience is far too insufficient. DSM consists in efficient management of energy demand as well as adoption of this demand i.e. changing the load. The decrease of energy consumption in the moment of its peak demand leads to the balance between the demand and supply in the system, which influences the market price of energy. If certain mechanisms are implemented that will cause that final receivers will be willing to adjust their demand for energy, we will create the Demand Response (DR), which is an efficient tool in the DSM strategy. It is assumed that electronic meters will bring a real quality change. The undertakings based on initiatives of the Polish Energy Regulatory Office that promote the concept of implementation of electronic metering in the Polish energy sector prove that Poland is determined to improve its energy efficiency. The report describes the concept of the electronic meters that enables the realisation of the DSM strategy as well as other complementary solutions that make the strategy even more efficient. In this field, it is planned to establish a dedicated loyalty programmes for energy receivers. The concept includes also the combination of the model solutions with the campaign "energy efficiency" organised by the Ministry of Economy, which aims at fulfilling the requirements of the directive 2006/32/EC on energy end-use efficiency and energy services.
Ociepa E.,Politechnika Czcstochowska |
Mrowiec M.,Politechnika Czcstochowska |
Deska I.,Politechnika Czcstochowska |
Okoniewska E.,Politechnika Czcstochowska
Rocznik Ochrona Srodowiska | Year: 2015
The paper presents the results of snow contamination collected from roadsides and parks of Czestochowa in these areas which are out of the impact of a transport. The study was conducted within 2009-2011, in which 120 samples were tested in general. In snowmelt and rain waters that are brought to the sewer or land there are the following pollutants such as: suspended solids, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, biogenic compounds, and even bacteriological contamination. The scope of the research included: pH, total suspended solids, COD and heavy metals in waste water coming into the sewer. On the basis of the survey and analysis of the literature data it is possible to admit the high variation in pollutant concentrations in snow cover, mainly related to the place of sampling. It should also be noted that the other factors, such as: the length of snow cover, the outside temperature, the duration of test runs, the direction of the winds, in the case of the particular type of a substance thawing roads, have affected the results of measurements substantially as evidenced by their differentiation to the point for further measurements. The samples of snow from the sides of roads and parking areas have been characterized by a high content of suspended solids falling within the broad range from 165 to 1325 mg/dm3, COD values ranged from 89.0 to 825.0 mg 02/dm3. The pH of the snow stood at the level of 4.75-6.50. The analysis of the results has shown that the vast majority of the samples has been characterized by a natural or light acidity. The pH value was associated with a place and time of sampling. Most of the snow samples, collected from roadsides with heavy traffic and parking spaces, pointed to their acidic or slightly acidic character. The average content of heavy metals: Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu and Ni within the snow was generally low, which could be due to the fact that the tests were performed within metals concentration in water after the filtration of a suspension. It should be pointed out, however, that the snow from these areas that are exposed to the direct impact of transport, contained more metals for several times, compared with the periphery of busy roads or parking lots. On this basis it can be concluded that the main source of pollution of snow cover was, as analyzed, the catchment traffic, much less air pollution from the other sources. Therefore, the concentration of pollutants in snow cover areas directly adjacent to roads and parking spaces, due to the high concentration of pollutions, ought to be monitored. It should be paid attention to the need to standardize the procedures within sampling the snow. © 2015, Middle Pomeranian Scientific Society. All Rights Reserved.
Macherzynski B.,Politechnika Czcstochowska |
Wlodarczyk-Makula M.,Politechnika Czcstochowska
Rocznik Ochrona Srodowiska | Year: 2015
The paper presents results of research on changes in physical-chemical properties during the process of co-fermentation of coke sludge and municipal sludge. The process was carried out at 37°C for 16 days. For testing of fermentation, the mixture of raw sludge and excessive sludge was prepared with the addition of fermented sludge (control) and four mixtures of sludge coke and municipal sewage sludge in the proportions: I, II, III, IV - 1:20, 1:10, 1:6, 1:4, respectively. The content of dry matter in the control sludge during fermentation decreased by 15% and the degree of decomposition of the organic substances was 24.7%. The share of organic matter in the fermented sludge was 60%.The total biogas production in the control sludge was 4557 mL. The analysed sludge I (ratio 1: 20) showed a loss of organic dry matter by 14%, and the degree of decomposition of organic matter reached 22.5%. The share of organic matter in fermented sludge alike for the control sludge accounted for 60%. During the co-fermentation of the analysed sludge (I) the total biogas production was 4508 mL. After the co-fermentation of sludge II (1:10) the degree of decomposition of organic substances was the same as during the co-fermentation sludge I and accounted for 22.4%. The dry matter content in the sludge decreased by 16%. Also, the content of organic matter in the fermented sludge was similar as after the fermentation of mixture I and accounted for 59%. The total biogas production was 3990 mL. The reduction of organic compound in sludge III (1:6) and IV was 22.3% and 20.6%. The dry matter of sludge after the 16-day incubation decreased by 16% in the case of a mixture III and by 15% - mixture IV. The share of organic matter in the fermented sludge was 64%. The results show that it is possible to dispose the coke sludge and the municipal sludge in the co-fermentation process. In the adopted experimental conditions, the introduction of coke sludge to the municipal sludge with the ratio of 1:20, 1:10 and 1: 6 (mixture I, II and III, respectively) had no statistically significant effect on the degree of decomposition of organic compounds, the loss of dry matter, the total biogas production, the reduction of organic substances expressed by COD index, the amount of biogas per unit of dry organic matter and the methane content in biogas. The coke sludge content for co-fermentation should not cause significant changes in technical parameters of the process, so in order to maintain the correct operation of the fermentation chambers it is necessary to determine the appropriate mixing ratio of sludge.