Dryzek J.,Polish Academy of Sciences |
Dryzek J.,University of Opole |
Kozlowska A.,Polish Oil and Gas Company
Tribology International | Year: 2010
The paper presents studies of the defect distribution, detected by the positron annihilation method in the subsurface zone (SZ) of copper samples after dry sliding wear. It takes advantage of a new experimental technique based on scanning of the positron implantation profile. It allowed us to detect the defect profile in copper to the depth of 200 μm in a nondestructive way and study isochronal annealing behavior of this profile. We determined that annealing induces a recrystallization process which runs faster close to the surface than in deeper regions. After sliding, the complete recrystallization of the substructure takes place at temperature c.a. 600 °C. Some changes in the defect structure begin at temperature c.a. 300 °C. The comparison of the temperature depth profile calculated theoretically with experimental results indicates that the role of the temperature rise in the asperity regions during sliding is negligible in the SZ constitution in the case studied. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Peryt T.M.,Polish Geological stitute National Research stitute |
Raczynski P.,Wrocław University |
Peryt D.,Polish Academy of Sciences |
Chlodek K.,Polish Oil and Gas Company
Geological Journal | Year: 2012
Stromatolite and bryozoan build-ups from the Werra Cycle (Zechste) of the Southern Permian Bas of Europe meet all defitions given by various authors for reefs and they commonly occur at the shelf edge. a few places, cludg western Poland, they are also recorded the basal facies. The ma part of the reef is formed by fragmented bryozoan zoaria. The reef biota are a typical bryonoderm association dicatg cool-water and cold-water environments. A characteristic feature is a large amount of fragmented skeletal remas lackg rigidity. The ma part of the reefs is built of rudstones, and only stromatolitic crusts form massive constructions. Remarkable is the mechanism of the orig of clearly morphologically separated reef constructions from the remas of a relatively low potential of fossilization. Zones built of crushed remas domate over parts representg massive constructions. The colonization of the substrate began very early, as dicated by the terbeddg of breccia and bioclastic carbonates the lowermost part of the Zechste Limestone some reef sections. The Zechste Limestone reefs of western Poland abound the hemispheroid (botryoid) aragonitic cement that is otherwise common for the Zechste reefs. The abundance of the cement recorded Permian reefs is terpreted as the result of an unusually high saturation state of surface seawater because of a number of factors, cludg prolific carbonate precipitation due to the occasional upwellg of warmer sale waters on shelf environments the stratified Zechste Bas. The pervasive carbonate precipitation the reef area contrasts with a restricted carbonate precipitation the adjog bas where very th sequences have accumulated. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Karnkowski P.H.,University of Warsaw |
Karnkowski P.H.,Polish Oil and Gas Company |
Pikulski L.,Exploration and Exploitation Oil and Gas Company Petrobaltic |
Wolnowski T.,Polish Oil and Gas Company Zielona Gora Branch
Geological Quarterly | Year: 2010
The Polish part of the Baltic region is located within the contact zone between two large geological units: The Precambrian platform and the Paleozoic platform. It comprises the Polish sector of the southern Baltic Sea and the adjacent onshore part of Northern Poland (West-ern and Eastern Pomerania). The fundamental geological pattern is defined by the Teisseyre-Tornquist Zone, separating the East Euro-pean Craton from the Paleozoic platform. As a result of exploration activity in the onshore Pomerania region, four oil fields in Cambrian sandstones, seven gas fields in Carboniferous sandstones, six gas fields in Rotliegend sandstones, and eleven oil fields within the Zechstein Main Dolomite horizon have been discovered. The petroleum play of the southern Baltic Sea region and adjacent areas must be considered separately for Eastern and Western Pomerania. In the Peribaltic Syneclise we can only take into consideration organic matter appearing in lower Paleozoic rocks but their geothermal history refers to the period from the Vendian up to the recent. The present extent of the "oil window" in the Upper Cambrian rocks is mainly restricted to the offshore area. Reservoir properties of the "gas window" Cam-brian rocks are rather low due to intensive diagenetic processes. Acquisition of gas should be possible by processes of hydraulic stimula-tion (tight gas). Lower Paleozoic rocks rich in organic matter (Ordovician and Silurian), especially in the border zone of the EEC (Ro >1.3%), could be an area of unconventional gas fields (shale gas). The Western Pomerania petroleum play shows two separate source rocks units. The older one embraces Carboniferous deposits with organic matter of terrestrial origin and generated gases accumulated in the Rotliegend and Carboniferous traps. The second petroleum system is located within the carbonates of the Zechstein Main Dolomite (Ca2). This is a closed system, meaning that the source rocks are at the same time the reservoirs sealed by Zechstein evaporates. Hitherto discovered hydrocarbon deposits in the Polish part of the Baltic region have confirmed good perspectives regarding oil and gas hydrocar-bon zones. New, conventional and unconventional discoveries remain possible.
Kosakowski P.,AGH University of Science and Technology |
Lesniak G.,Institute of Oil and Gas |
Krawiec J.,Polish Oil and Gas Company
Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae | Year: 2012
During the 50-year-long intense petroleum exploration of the Palaeozoic-Mesozoic basement of the Carpathian Foredeep, more than 20 oil and gas accumulations have been discovered. The basic and most important oil-bearing levels in the Mesozoic section are Oxfordian carbonates and Cenomanian sandstones. The Nosówka, Zalesie, Trzebownisko-Krasne, Cetynia, Uszkowce and Lachowice hydrocarbon accumulations and numerous hydrocarbon shows have been found in the Palaeozoic horizons. This paper is focused on evaluation of reservoir properties of the entire Palaeozoic-Mesozoic basement of the Carpathian Foredeep and marginal part of the Outer Carpathians for finding new reservoir horizons. 558 rock samples from 51 wells in the Kraków-Lubaczów area were analysed. The well log results from 20 wells were additionally used for the assessment of petrophysical properties. The results of porosimetry measurements and well logs varied in all discussed Palaeozoic and Mesozoic basement horizons of the Carpathian Foredeep. The best reservoir properties were estimated within the Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous carbonate complex. Despite great variability, the carbonate rocks display highest average porosity and good permeability values. The variability of reservoir properties is mostly a result of the character of the reservoir-porous-fracture space. Good reservoir properties were also estimated for the Upper Cretaceous carbonate rocks. However, in most of the analysed wells the potential reservoirs were watered. The Palaeozoic complex displays weaker reservoir properties and they mainly refer only to the Devonian-Lower Carboniferous horizon. The Lower Palaeozoic rocks display weak reservoir properties. Their potential is additionally lowered by negligible range of occurrence and a small thickness. Generally, the gas- and oil-bearing properties of the analysed zone can be attributed only to the Jurassic-Cretaceous reservoir horizons. The remaining horizons, especially the Upper Palaeozoic complex, are only supplement to the reservoir potential of the area.
Slowakiewicz M.,Polish Geological Institute |
Mikolajewski Z.,Polish Oil and Gas Company
Marine and Petroleum Geology | Year: 2011
Various microbialite lithofacies were common in the shallow-water environments which flourished under highly saline and arid climate conditions in the Polish part of the Zechstein (Upper Permian) Main Dolomite (Ca2) carbonates. Data came from detailed analysis of 78 cores from wells located at the southern and northern margins of the Main Dolomite basin in west Poland. Microbialite lithofacies are represented by columnar, planar and domal stromatolites, clotted thrombolites and biolaminites developed in high-to-low energy environments within the upper slope, lower parts of oolitic barrier/shoal, restricted lagoon, and tidal flat and tidal channel zones. In barrier environments ooids were predominant whereas in lagoonal settings microbial oncoids and peloids were common. In basinal settings laminated dolomudstones formed which are regarded as hemipelagic and are partly pelagic microbial in origin. Microbial communities coexisted with algae and developed mainly within shallow marine environments. Microbialites are built of cyanobacterial filaments and organo-mineral coccoidal forms possibly of bacterial origin. Organic geochemistry data confirm that organic matter was transformed by cyanobacteria and bacteria which may have played a main role in hydrocarbon generation. This is confirmed by C29 to C35 hopanes, Pr/Ph ratio below 1.0, and the presence of gammacerane as typical for Ca2 profiles. The role and occurrence of algae, as confirmed by C29-steranes, in hydrocarbon generation was possibly minor. Thus it is concluded that the Main Dolomite microbialites could be the likely source rocks for hydrocarbons, with calculated original TOC values from 0.8 to ca 2.0 wt. %. These units also form the reservoir rocks, with porosities reaching 20%. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Peryt D.,Polish Academy of Sciences |
Peryt T.M.,Polish Geological Institute National Research Institute |
Raczynski P.,Wrocław University |
Chlodek K.,Polish Oil and Gas Company
Geological Quarterly | Year: 2012
The basal Zechstein succession in SW Poland is dominated by breccias and/or conglomerates or extraclast-bearing bioclastic limestones, which were deposited during rapid flooding of the pre-existing intracontinental basin in the early Lopingian (Late Permian). Of these, the boulder-cobble breccias and conglomerates are interpreted as deposited in a rocky shore-zone where density flows and upwelling pre- vailed. The breccias gradually pass up into bryozoan (or other bioclastics) grainstones. The matrix-supported breccias were deposited as large extraclasts and blocks of Carboniferous rock were rolled down or detached from a cliff and were then either embedded into a carbonate sand or formed a framework supplying voids that could be colonized by tubular encrusting foraminifers. These foraminifers abound in all basal Zechstein facies (except in the debris-flow deposits) and are attributed to Palaeonubecularia. The associated faunas include other foraminifers (uniserial and hemigordiopsids), bryozoans, brachiopods, bivalves, gastropods, and microbial deposits. The prolific growth of tubular encrusting foraminifers has resulted from nutrient supply from the basin by upwelling. Botryoidal aragonite cements (also interpreted as due to upwelling) also characterize the basal Zechstein strata, although they were previously reported only from the upper Zechstein Limestone. The δ I3C values of the basal Zechstein deposits show small variation and oscillated around 4.0%o, suggesting that these deposits are younger than the Kupferschiefer.
Kudrewicz R.,Polish Oil and Gas Company
Geoinformatics 2010 - 9th International Conference on Geoinformatics: Theoretical and Applied Aspects | Year: 2010
PGNiG is the Polish national petroleum company. The company's cartographic database has been under construction for over 12 years. It started with a collection of paper maps and one license of UNIX-based ARC/INFO. Now the cartographic database located on LAN-type network is used by over 50 active users in 6 offices. Recent developments include the collection and storage of 100k topo base maps (on-line), 50k raster and vector base maps (off-line), administrative vector data, field data, 2D and 3D seismic location data, environmental data and many others. The database is interactively connected to the well database. As result of changing the hardware-software environment the data formats and storage mode were also changed from dispersed database based on the shape-files and TIFFs into a more integrated form of a database based on the FileGeodatabase format. Parallel to the increase of information, construction and numeric format changes the distribution of data sources changed. At the beginning most of the data was produced within the company. Now an important amount of data is purchased or acquired from public sources. Future plans ⋯ the construction of a professional cartographic data server based on ESRI server solutions.
Dyjaczynski K.,Polish Oil and Gas Company |
Peryt T.M.,Polish Geological Institute National Research Institute
Geological Quarterly | Year: 2014
The development of basal Zechstein (Wuchiapingian) strata in SW Poland indicates the existence of a varied relief inherited after the flooding of the pre-existing depression by the transgressing Zechstein sea. The deeper parts of the basin were the place of development of thin basinal Zechstein Limestone showing sedimentary condensation manifested by bored and encrusted grains and thick evaporites (mostly halite). In shallow parts, Zechstein Limestone reefs followed by thinner evaporite sequences (dominated by anhydrite) were formed. The analysis of 2D sections extracted from 3D seismic data showed that instead of three conventionally recognized evaporitic units in the PZ1 cycle, five units occur (from the base to the top: Lower Anhydrite, Lower Oldest Halite, Middle Anhydrite, Upper Oldest Halite, Upper Anhydrite). In any particular place their number may vary from two (Lower Anhydrite at the base of the PZ1 cycle and Upper Anhydrite at the top of the PZ1 cycle) to five. Two units of Lower Anhydrite occur throughout the platform and basinal zones, showing a deepening-upwards (transgressive) trend. Halite sedimentation, in the deepest parts of salt basins, began shortly after the deposition of the upper Lower Anhydrite while on sulphate platform areas, sulphate deposition continued. The Lower Oldest Halite deposits occur in the depressions. Between the halite basins, anhydrite platforms occur, and the thickness of anhydrite platform deposits is smaller than is observed in salt basins. The Upper Oldest Halite in turn is recorded above the anhydrite platform. The two halite units represent different phases of development of halite basins. Formation of the Lower Oldest Halite basins was related to pre-Zechstein depressions, although in some cases their syndepositional subsidence was controlled by reactivation of former faults within the sub-Zechstein basement. In turn, the Upper Oldest Halite basins used the accommodation space created due to anhydritization of the Lower Anhydrite deposits, that were composed originally of selenitic gypsum, and the associated volume loss. 3D seismic data, constrained by borehole data, show that the PZ1 evaporites in SW Poland were deposited in a far more complex and dynamic system than previously assumed. © 2014 Polish Geological Institute. All rights reserved.
Kiersnowski H.,Polish Geological Institute |
Peryt T.M.,Polish Geological Institute |
Buniak A.,Polish Geological Institute |
Mikolajewski Z.,Polish Oil and Gas Company
Geological Journal | Year: 2010
The tectonic Wolsztyn-Pogorzela palaeo-High (WPH) is the south-eastern termination of the Brandenburg-Wolsztyn High (western Poland), which during Late Permian times was an intra-basin ridge surrounded by Upper Rotliegend sedimentary basins within the Southern Permian Basin. The geological history and structural framework of the WPH are complex. The High belongs to the Variscan Externides, consisting at present of strongly folded, faulted and eroded Visean to Namurian flysch deposits capped by a thick cover of Upper Carboniferous-Lower Permian volcanic rocks. This sedimentary-volcanic complex was strongly fragmented and vertically differentiated by tectonic movements and subsequently eroded, resulting in the deposition of coarse clastics surrounding uplifted tectonic blocks. During late Rotliegend time, arid climatic conditions significantly influenced occurrences of specific facies assemblages: alluvial, fluvial, aeolian and playa. Sedimentological study helped to recognize the interplay of tectonic and palaeoclimatic factors and to understand the phenomenon of aeolian sandstones interbedded with coarse deposits of alluvial cones close to fault scarps. Subsequent tectonic and possible thermal subsidence of the studied area was synchronous with inundation by the Zechstein Sea. The rapid inundation process allowed for the preservation of an almost perfectly protected Uppermost Rotliegend landscape. Based on 3D seismic data from the base Zechstein reflector, a reconstruction of Rotliegend palaeogeomorphology was carried out, which shows examples of tectonic rejuvenation of particular tectonic blocks within the WPH area before inundation by the Zechstein Sea. The inundation led to the deposition of the marine Kupferschiefer Shale followed by the Zechstein Limestone. In the deeper parts of the basin the latter is developed in thin basinal facies: in shallow parts (e.g. uplifted tectonic blocks forming in some cases islands), carbonate buildups were formed. The remarkable thickness of those buildups (bryozoan reefs) is interpreted as due to stable tectonic subsidence together with a rise of sea level. A detailed study of carbonate buildups has showed that their internal structure reflects changes in shallow marine environments and even emersion events, caused by sea-level oscillations and tectonic movements of the reef substrate. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
News Article | November 22, 2016
WARSZAWA, 22-Nov-2016 — /EuropaWire/ — Polish Oil and Gas Company (PGNiG SA) started gas production from Rizq deposit and drilling of another well in Rehman deposit. The company’s gas production in Pakistan exceeded 0,5 mcm per day. PGNiG extracts over 300 thousand cubic metres of gas per day through Rizq-1 well in Pakistan. The resources of this deposit are estimated for 4,5 bcm. Thanks to Rizq-1 the entire production of gas by PGNiG in Pakistan has exceeded 0,5 mcm per day which is now twice as much as before. Rizq-1 well is the third well of PGNiG in Pakistan. Two remaining wells – Hallel-X1 and Rehman-1 – are extracting gas from Rehman deposit. Rehman gas mine – which Rizq-1 well is connected to – was opened in November 2015. Another borehole in Rehman deposit coming up At the same time PGNiG has started testing in the already completed borehole Rehman-2 and started drilling of a horizontal borehole in Rehman-3. This will be the fourth well on the Rehman field which aims at increasing production from this deposit. – Works on the Rehman-3 well is a very important stage in our plan to fully develop both Rehman and Rizq fields in Pakistan. We continue our preparatory operations to drill next boreholes to increase gas production even further – commented Piotr Woźniak, President of the Management Board of PGNiG SA. Drilling and then fracking as well as testing of Rehman-3 is scheduled to take about five months. Planned borehole will be over 3000 metres long. The drilling works for PGNiG in Pakistan will be carried out by Exalo Drilling SA, subsidiary of PGNiG. PGNiG is looking into expansion of Rehman mine. The company wishes to optimize production abilities and its infrastructure to carry on exploration and production operations and increasing gas transmission to a contractor – a national gas firm in Pakistan.