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Syller J.,Polish Institute of Plant Breeding and Acclimatization
Molecular Plant Pathology | Year: 2012

Mixed infections of plant viruses are common in nature, and a number of important virus diseases of plants are the outcomes of interactions between causative agents. Multiple infections lead to a variety of intrahost virus-virus interactions, many of which may result in the generation of variants showing novel genetic features, and thus change the genetic structure of the viral population. Hence, virus-virus interactions in plants may be of crucial significance for the understanding of viral pathogenesis and evolution, and consequently for the development of efficient and stable control strategies. The interactions between plant viruses in mixed infections are generally categorized as synergistic or antagonistic. Moreover, mixtures of synergistic and antagonistic interactions, creating usually unpredictable biological and epidemiological consequences, are likely to occur in plants. The mechanisms of some of these are still unknown. This review aims to bring together the current knowledge on the most commonly occurring facilitative and antagonistic interactions between related or unrelated viruses infecting the same host plant. The best characterized implications of these interactions for virus-vector-host relationships are included. The terms 'synergism' and 'helper dependence' for facilitative virus-virus interactions, and 'cross-protection' and 'mutual exclusion' for antagonistic interactions, are applied in this article. © 2011 The Author. Molecular Plant Pathology © 2011 BSPP and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Kostiw M.,Polish Institute of Plant Breeding and Acclimatization
Journal of Plant Protection Research | Year: 2011

The research was carried out in field conditions in Bonin in the north of Poland, in 1996-2009, and additionally in Bonin, Przechlewo (also in the north of Poland) and Stare Olesno located in the southern part of Poland, in 2008 and 2009. The outcome showed that Potato virus Y posed the most serious threat to potatoes. The share of progeny tubers infected by this pathogen was 32.5% (mean of 1996-2009) and was considerably higher in comparison to PVM (18.2%) and PVS (22.1%), and in particular to PLRV (15.3%). The additional research carried out in the years 2008 and 2009 in three places: Bonin, Przechlewo (located in the north of Poland) and Stare Olesno (south of Poland) included three potato cultivars of low resistance to PLRV. The results also showed a very low pressure of this virus in both years and in all places of the research. In Przechlewo, PLRV was not detected at all in progeny tubers. While in Stare Olesno and particularly in Bonin, the percentage of PLRV-infected tubers was very small. The average for years and the average for localities amounted to 2.1 and 0.3%, respectively. Whereas the share of tubers infected by PVY, PVM and PVS was considerably higher and ranged from 11.8% to 59.8% depending on the cultivar, year and place. The progeny tubers infected by PVY and PVM were mostly detected in the very early term of exposure(from the 21st of May to the 1st of June). Whereas PVS posed the most serious threat in a somewhat later term i.e. during the exposure of plants which lasted from the 1st of June to 11th of June.

Destarched and deproteinated water-unextractable material (WUM) of rye outer layers was sequentially treated with lichenase and cellulase to digest β-glucans and a part of the cellulose. As a result, the polymeric cell-wall material (CWM) initially associated with these polysaccharides was released into solution (AXL and AXC for lichenase- and cellulase-extractable fractions, respectively). A portion of the material that self-aggregated during extractions was further solubilized with DMSO (XD and XD-P for the fraction left in the solution and that precipitated during dialysis, respectively). Arabinoxylans (AXs) recovered from these fractions were composed of populations with different degrees of substitution with α-l-arabinofuranosyl residues (Araf). Their counterparts present in the AXL and AXC fractions exhibited higher (0.60 and 0.75) arabinose-to-xylose ratios (Ara/Xyl) and represented 27% and 32% of the isolated AXs, respectively. The xylans of the XD and XD-P fractions had a very low Ara/Xyl ratio (0.16 and 0.09) and accounted for 23% and 18%, respectively. Based on the results of ammonium sulfate fractionation and sugar analysis, it has been shown that AXL consisted of AX subfractions having Ara/Xyl in a narrow range (0.50-0.66). By contrast, the cellulase-extractable AXs were characterized by the presence of the highly branched subfractions (Ara/Xyl of 1.00) as well. Quite unexpectedly, the higher amounts of ferulic acid (FA) were found in the cell-wall fractions enriched in xylans than in the AX-containing fractions. Furthermore, as demonstrated by 1H NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, xylans were substituted with α-d-glucuronopyranosyl residues (GlcpA). © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Syller J.,Polish Institute of Plant Breeding and Acclimatization
Molecular Plant Pathology | Year: 2014

Viruses are likely to be the most dangerous parasites of living organisms because of their widespread occurrence, possible deleterious effects on their hosts and high rates of evolution. Virus host-to-host transmission is a critical step in the virus life cycle, because it enables survival in a given environment and efficient dissemination. As hosts of plant viruses are not mobile, these pathogens have adopted diverse transmission strategies involving various vector organisms, mainly arthropods, nematodes, fungi and protists. In nature, plants are often infected with more than one virus at a time, thereby creating potential sources for vectors to acquire and transmit simultaneously two or more viruses. Simultaneous transmission can result in multiple infections of new host plants, which become subsequent potential sources of the viruses, thus enhancing the spread of the diseases caused by these pathogens. Moreover, it can contribute to the maintenance of viral genetic diversity in the host communities. However, despite its possible significance, the problem of the simultaneous transmission of plant viruses by vectors has not been investigated in detail. In this review, the current knowledge on multiple viral transmissions by aphids, whiteflies, leafhoppers, planthoppers, nematodes and fungi is outlined. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

Sliwka J.,Polish Institute of Plant Breeding and Acclimatization
TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik | Year: 2012

Solanum ×  michoacanum (Bitter.) Rydb. is a diploid, 1 EBN (Endosperm Balance Number) nothospecies, a relative of potato originating from the area of Morelia in Michoacán State of Mexico that is believed to be a natural hybrid of S. bulbocastanum × S. pinnatisectum. Both parental species and S. michoacanum have been described as sources of resistance to Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary. The gene for resistance to potato late blight, Rpi-mch1, originating from S. michoacanum was mapped to the chromosome VII of the potato genome. It confers high level of resistance since the plants possessing it showed only small necrotic lesions or no symptoms of the P. infestans infection and we could ascribe over 80% of variance observed in the late blight resistance test of the mapping population to the effect of the closest marker. Its localization on chromosome VII may correspond to the localization of the Rpi1 gene from S. pinnatisectum. When mapping Rpi-mch1, one of the first genetic maps made of 798 Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers of a plant species from the Solanum genus and the first map of S. michoacanum, a 1EBN potato species was constructed. Particular chromosomes were identified using 48 sequence-specific PCR markers, originating mostly from the Tomato-EXPEN 2000 linkage map (SGN), but also from other sources. Recently, the first DArT linkage map of 2 EBN species Solanum phureja has been published and it shares 197 DArT markers with map obtained in this study, 88% of which are in the concordant positions.

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