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Rykaczewska K.,Polish Institute of Plant Breeding and Acclimatization
Plant, Soil and Environment | Year: 2017

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a plant typical mainly for temperate climate and develops best at about 20°C. Heat stress due to increased temperatures is an agricultural problem in many areas in the world. The aim of our work was to assess the response of selected new potato cultivars to heat and drought stress during the subsequent stages of plant growth starting from buds forming. The pot experiment was carried out over the course of two years with the following early cultivars: Lord, Miłek, Gwiazda, Hubal, Oberon and Tetyda. The impact of heat (38°C/25°C) and drought stress on potato plants was tested in four periods of two weeks. In these periods half of the plants were watered to a level close to optimal while the other half remained without irrigation. Our studies demonstrated that tested potato cultivars’ response to heat stress depends on the growth stage, in which the temperature acts on the plants and on the soil moisture. Besides the decrease in yield and tubers’ diminution, the biggest problem was the presence of tubers with physiological defects, particularly of immature tubers. The response of cultivars was differentiated. © 2017, Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved.

Destarched and deproteinated water-unextractable material (WUM) of rye outer layers was sequentially treated with lichenase and cellulase to digest β-glucans and a part of the cellulose. As a result, the polymeric cell-wall material (CWM) initially associated with these polysaccharides was released into solution (AXL and AXC for lichenase- and cellulase-extractable fractions, respectively). A portion of the material that self-aggregated during extractions was further solubilized with DMSO (XD and XD-P for the fraction left in the solution and that precipitated during dialysis, respectively). Arabinoxylans (AXs) recovered from these fractions were composed of populations with different degrees of substitution with α-l-arabinofuranosyl residues (Araf). Their counterparts present in the AXL and AXC fractions exhibited higher (0.60 and 0.75) arabinose-to-xylose ratios (Ara/Xyl) and represented 27% and 32% of the isolated AXs, respectively. The xylans of the XD and XD-P fractions had a very low Ara/Xyl ratio (0.16 and 0.09) and accounted for 23% and 18%, respectively. Based on the results of ammonium sulfate fractionation and sugar analysis, it has been shown that AXL consisted of AX subfractions having Ara/Xyl in a narrow range (0.50-0.66). By contrast, the cellulase-extractable AXs were characterized by the presence of the highly branched subfractions (Ara/Xyl of 1.00) as well. Quite unexpectedly, the higher amounts of ferulic acid (FA) were found in the cell-wall fractions enriched in xylans than in the AX-containing fractions. Furthermore, as demonstrated by 1H NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, xylans were substituted with α-d-glucuronopyranosyl residues (GlcpA). © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kostiw M.,Polish Institute of Plant Breeding and Acclimatization
Journal of Plant Protection Research | Year: 2011

The research was carried out in field conditions in Bonin in the north of Poland, in 1996-2009, and additionally in Bonin, Przechlewo (also in the north of Poland) and Stare Olesno located in the southern part of Poland, in 2008 and 2009. The outcome showed that Potato virus Y posed the most serious threat to potatoes. The share of progeny tubers infected by this pathogen was 32.5% (mean of 1996-2009) and was considerably higher in comparison to PVM (18.2%) and PVS (22.1%), and in particular to PLRV (15.3%). The additional research carried out in the years 2008 and 2009 in three places: Bonin, Przechlewo (located in the north of Poland) and Stare Olesno (south of Poland) included three potato cultivars of low resistance to PLRV. The results also showed a very low pressure of this virus in both years and in all places of the research. In Przechlewo, PLRV was not detected at all in progeny tubers. While in Stare Olesno and particularly in Bonin, the percentage of PLRV-infected tubers was very small. The average for years and the average for localities amounted to 2.1 and 0.3%, respectively. Whereas the share of tubers infected by PVY, PVM and PVS was considerably higher and ranged from 11.8% to 59.8% depending on the cultivar, year and place. The progeny tubers infected by PVY and PVM were mostly detected in the very early term of exposure(from the 21st of May to the 1st of June). Whereas PVS posed the most serious threat in a somewhat later term i.e. during the exposure of plants which lasted from the 1st of June to 11th of June.

Sliwka J.,Polish Institute of Plant Breeding and Acclimatization
TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik | Year: 2012

Solanum ×  michoacanum (Bitter.) Rydb. is a diploid, 1 EBN (Endosperm Balance Number) nothospecies, a relative of potato originating from the area of Morelia in Michoacán State of Mexico that is believed to be a natural hybrid of S. bulbocastanum × S. pinnatisectum. Both parental species and S. michoacanum have been described as sources of resistance to Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary. The gene for resistance to potato late blight, Rpi-mch1, originating from S. michoacanum was mapped to the chromosome VII of the potato genome. It confers high level of resistance since the plants possessing it showed only small necrotic lesions or no symptoms of the P. infestans infection and we could ascribe over 80% of variance observed in the late blight resistance test of the mapping population to the effect of the closest marker. Its localization on chromosome VII may correspond to the localization of the Rpi1 gene from S. pinnatisectum. When mapping Rpi-mch1, one of the first genetic maps made of 798 Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers of a plant species from the Solanum genus and the first map of S. michoacanum, a 1EBN potato species was constructed. Particular chromosomes were identified using 48 sequence-specific PCR markers, originating mostly from the Tomato-EXPEN 2000 linkage map (SGN), but also from other sources. Recently, the first DArT linkage map of 2 EBN species Solanum phureja has been published and it shares 197 DArT markers with map obtained in this study, 88% of which are in the concordant positions.

Syller J.,Polish Institute of Plant Breeding and Acclimatization
Molecular Plant Pathology | Year: 2014

Viruses are likely to be the most dangerous parasites of living organisms because of their widespread occurrence, possible deleterious effects on their hosts and high rates of evolution. Virus host-to-host transmission is a critical step in the virus life cycle, because it enables survival in a given environment and efficient dissemination. As hosts of plant viruses are not mobile, these pathogens have adopted diverse transmission strategies involving various vector organisms, mainly arthropods, nematodes, fungi and protists. In nature, plants are often infected with more than one virus at a time, thereby creating potential sources for vectors to acquire and transmit simultaneously two or more viruses. Simultaneous transmission can result in multiple infections of new host plants, which become subsequent potential sources of the viruses, thus enhancing the spread of the diseases caused by these pathogens. Moreover, it can contribute to the maintenance of viral genetic diversity in the host communities. However, despite its possible significance, the problem of the simultaneous transmission of plant viruses by vectors has not been investigated in detail. In this review, the current knowledge on multiple viral transmissions by aphids, whiteflies, leafhoppers, planthoppers, nematodes and fungi is outlined. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

Wrobel S.,Polish Institute of Plant Breeding and Acclimatization
Potato Research | Year: 2012

The aim of this research was to compare the effectiveness of mineral oil with rapeseed oil in the protection of potato seeds against Potato virus Y (PVY) and Potato virus M (PVM) infection. The research was carried out under field conditions in the north of Poland, in the Department of Potato Protection and Seed Science of the Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute-National Research Institute at Bonin. The effects of oil protection on potato seed infection by viruses, yield, and its structure and phytotoxity were assessed. Two rapeseed oils and one mineral oil were used: Olejan 85 EC (85% of natural rapeseed oil), alimentary oil Marlibo (100% of natural rapeseed oil) and Sunspray 850 EC (98. 8% mineral oil+1. 2% emulsifier). The effectiveness of oils in protection against PVY and PVM tuber infection was tested on two cultivars (Clarissa and Rosalind), which have a different level of resistance to the two viruses. The assessment of phytotoxicity was carried out on 10 potato cultivars from different earliness groups (Augusta, Bryza, Cekin, Clarissa, Impala, Krasa, Rosalind, Satina, Velox). Two oil concentrations, 2% and 4% were applied. During the growing period, eight to nine oil treatments were applied at 7-day intervals. The effectiveness of rapeseed oils against PVY and PVM was much weaker than that of the mineral oil and for the susceptible cultivar the percentage infected tubers did not differ significantly from untreated crops. However, Olejan 85 EC deserves attention as it significantly reduced PVY infection across years in the more resistant cultivar, especially in the case of a lower concentration (2% vs. 4%). When there are no other means of protection to use on organic seed plantations, this oil can be used as an alternative, especially in the case of cultivars which are moderately resistant to PVY. A disadvantage of its application may be the fact that in some years symptoms of phytotoxicity on potato plants were recorded and a lowering of tuber yield. © 2012 EAPR.

Milczarek D.,Polish Institute of Plant Breeding and Acclimatization
American Journal of Potato Research | Year: 2012

A simple multiplex PCR method was developed for detection of the alleles H1 and Gro1-4 conferring resistance of potato to Globodera rostochiensis. SCAR markers TG689 and Gro1-4 linked to H1 and Gro1-4 genes respectively were amplified in the one PCR reaction. This allows to identify clones with resistance to G. rostochiensis originating from a single source or both of them. Effectiveness of this procedure for marker-assisted selection (MAS) was confirmed by 60 potato cultivars tested. © 2011 Potato Association of America.

Syller J.,Polish Institute of Plant Breeding and Acclimatization
Molecular Plant Pathology | Year: 2012

Mixed infections of plant viruses are common in nature, and a number of important virus diseases of plants are the outcomes of interactions between causative agents. Multiple infections lead to a variety of intrahost virus-virus interactions, many of which may result in the generation of variants showing novel genetic features, and thus change the genetic structure of the viral population. Hence, virus-virus interactions in plants may be of crucial significance for the understanding of viral pathogenesis and evolution, and consequently for the development of efficient and stable control strategies. The interactions between plant viruses in mixed infections are generally categorized as synergistic or antagonistic. Moreover, mixtures of synergistic and antagonistic interactions, creating usually unpredictable biological and epidemiological consequences, are likely to occur in plants. The mechanisms of some of these are still unknown. This review aims to bring together the current knowledge on the most commonly occurring facilitative and antagonistic interactions between related or unrelated viruses infecting the same host plant. The best characterized implications of these interactions for virus-vector-host relationships are included. The terms 'synergism' and 'helper dependence' for facilitative virus-virus interactions, and 'cross-protection' and 'mutual exclusion' for antagonistic interactions, are applied in this article. © 2011 The Author. Molecular Plant Pathology © 2011 BSPP and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Wrobel S.,Polish Institute of Plant Breeding and Acclimatization
American Journal of Potato Research | Year: 2014

ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a sensitive and reliable method of plant virus detection. It is commonly used in daily research carried out by scientific institutions and laboratories working on the certification of potato tubers. The key stage in this method is a 3-4-h-long incubation of microtiter plates with IgG and with a conjugate in an incubator at a temperature of 37 °C. The aim of the research was to replace this type of incubation process with a technique of mechanically shaking the plates using a shaker to induce a vibrating movement. Three durations of shaking, performed at room temperature, were adopted: 30, 60 and 90 min with two incubation periods at a temperature of 37 °C: 60 and 180 min which were applied at the stage of coating the IgG plates, following addition of the conjugate. The assessment was made for three dilutions of lyophilized sap from leaf of potatoes (1:10, 1:100, 1:1,000). Replacing the stages of plates incubation with IgG and conjugate at 37 °C with mechanical shaking allowed the whole process of DAS-ELISA to be reduced below 3-4 h without any significant impact on its quality. The process turned out to be equally efficient as the 3-h-long incubation in an incubator for PVY, PVM and PLRV detection by means of DAS ELISA. Applying the 90-min-long incubation on a shaker in comparison to a 3-h-long incubation in an incubator gave comparable or even slightly improved results. The reaction background, i.e. the value of absorbance for sap from healthy plants (negative control) was very low in all the combinations irrespective of the time of reading after the substrate was placed. No significant differences for this parameter were found between the combinations and times of reading. Only in the case of PLRV was a clearly visible decrease in test sensitivity found (no positive reactions) at diluted sap over 1:10. Moreover, it was observed that an increase in dilutions impacted the length of reaction. The dilution 1:10 seemed to be the most favorable (maximum 1:100 for PVY and PVM), wherein the sensitivity and pace of staining the substrate for each of the methods did not provoke any doubts regarding the reliability of the test. © 2014 Potato Association of America.

Rykaczewska K.,Polish Institute of Plant Breeding and Acclimatization
American Journal of Potato Research | Year: 2015

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is characterized by specific temperature requirements and develops best at about 20 °C. High temperatures during the growing season cause an array of changes in potato plants, which affect its development and may lead to a drastic reduction in economic yield. In natural conditions drought and heat stress are two different types of abiotic stresses that occur in the field simultaneously or separately, in the case of irrigation use on potato plantations. The aim of this work was to assess the response of six potato cultivars to high temperature during the subsequent stages of plant growth under conditions of good soil moisture and drought. The pot experiment was carried out with the cultivars: Aruba, Desirée, Etola, Finezja, Flaming and Tetyda. The impact of high temperature day/ night 35 °C/25 °C on potato plants was tested in three periods: June 16–30, July 1–15 and July 16–30. In these periods half of the plants were watered to a level close to optimal, while the other half remained without irrigation. Final harvest was performed after full maturity of plants in the control combination. Our studies confirm the view that potato productivity is greatly reduced at temperatures higher than optimum. Here we demonstrated that tested potato cultivar’s response to high temperature during the growing season is dependent on the growth stage. The earlier a heat occurs, the more negative its impact on the growth and total yield of potatoes. The results obtained in this study indicate that among the tested cultivars ‘Tetyda’ was the most tolerant to high temperature acting on the plants during the growing season. Our research shows that the total yield is not the only indicator of potato tolerance to high temperature during the growing season, but the assessment should also take into account the occurrence of secondary tuberization and physiological defects of tubers. © 2015, The Author(s).

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