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Rozanowski K.,Polish Institute of Aviation | Murawski K.,Military University of Technology
Acta Physica Polonica A | Year: 2013

The aim of the paper is to describe design of an optical sensor intended to analyze pupillary light reflex. It also presents the results of physiological adaptation mechanisms in human eye, i.e. response of the iris to changes in the intensity of light that falls on the retina of the eye under conditions of sensory deprivation. Pupillary light reflex is a closed loop nerve reflex. It controls the amount of light that reaches the retina. Based on the test results, an optical sensor was designed, fabricated and correctly calibrated. In comparative tests with the use of F2D Fit- -For-Duty, a commercial system by AMTech, selected pupillographic parameters were primarily evaluated (baseline pupil diameter, oscillations, reflex latency, maximum reaction time, pupil constriction time, pupil dilation time, and constriction amplitude) under conditions of diminished alertness, reduced ability to concentrate, increasing fatigue, and drowsiness. The solution comes as part of a mobile pupillography device intended to be assembled in cars and airplanes to identify conditions of lower alertness, reduced ability to concentrate, increasing fatigue and drowsiness in drivers, pilots and traffic controllers, and to trigger alarm and preventive measures, if necessary.


Rozanowski K.,Polish Institute of Aviation | Murawski K.,Military University of Technology
Acta Physica Polonica A | Year: 2012

The paper presents the optical sensor which is built for EyeTracker operating in car harsh environment. The sensor is based on USB high speed video infrared camera. Additional hardware was designed for control and emission of infrared light as well. The designed hardware and software of the sensor are described in the paper. Some results of work, including video processing, are also presented.


Murawski K.,Military University of Technology | Rozanowski K.,Polish Institute of Aviation
Acta Physica Polonica A | Year: 2013

The aim of the paper is to discuss research conducted at the Military University of Technology as well as the Military Institute of Aviation Medicine. The essence of the research is to develop a pattern recognition algorithm for the analysis of data received from an eye tracker sensor. Data analysis can be done using computer vision algorithms. In the article the state of the art pattern recognition algorithms were presented. Particular attention was paid to the possibilities and limitations of their use. The main part of the paper is the presentation of the author's pattern recognition algorithm. In the paper we have also shown the results obtained by other techniques of image processing, which are frequently used to determine the position of the pupil of the eye on the image.


Ben-Jaffel L.,CNRS Paris Institute of Astrophysics | Ratkiewicz R.,Polish Institute of Aviation | Ratkiewicz R.,Polish Academy of Sciences
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2012

Since its formation 4.6 billion years ago, our solar system has most likely crossed numerous magnetized interstellar clouds and bubbles of different sizes and contents on its path through the Milky Way. Having a reference model for how the heliosphere and interstellar winds interact is critical for understanding our current Galactic environment, and it requires untangling the roles of two major actors: the time-variable solar wind and the local interstellar magnetic field. Numerical simulations predict a distortion of the heliosphere caused by both solar wind anisotropy and interstellar magnetic field orientation. However, model comparison to deep space probes' measurements led to contradictory reports by Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 of both several crossings of the solar wind's termination shock and of the strength of the local interstellar field, with values ranging from 1.8 to 5.7 μG. Here, we show that Voyager 1 and 2 plasma, fields, and Lyman-α sky background measurements, as well as space observations of high-energy particles of heliospheric origin, may all be explained by a rather weak interstellar field 2.2 ± 0.1 μG pointing from Galactic coordinates (l,b) ~ (28,52) ± 3°. For the 2000 epoch Ulysses-based helium parameters assumed thus far, the interstellar bow shock must exist. By contrast, using the 2010 epoch IBEX-based He parameters and a stronger magnetic field leads to a plasma configuration that is not consistent with the Voyagers TS crossings. For the newly proposed interstellar He parameters, more simulations are required before one may determine whether the interstellar bow shock truly does disappear under those assumptions. ©2012 ESO.


Galinska A.,Polish Institute of Aviation
Applied Composite Materials | Year: 2016

There have been several approaches used in the modelling of the process-induced deformations of composite parts developed so far. The most universal and most frequently used approach is the FEM modelling. In the scope of the FEM modelling several material models have been used to model the composite behaviour. In the present work two of the most popular material models: elastic and CHILE (cure hardening instantaneous linear elastic) are used to model the spring-in deformations of composite specimens and a structure fragment. The elastic model is more effective, whereas the CHILE model is considered more accurate. The results of the models are compared with each other and with the measured deformations of the real composite parts. Such a comparison shows that both models allow to predict the deformations reasonably well and that there is little difference between their results. This leads to a conclusion that the use of the simpler elastic model is a valid engineering practice. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Graffstein J.,Polish Institute of Aviation
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2016

The article is focused on the results of analysis aimed at selected variables, which are found to be important for the automatic flight control in case of passing by a moving obstacle. Desired values of state variables, significant for the run of automatically controlled evasive manoeuvre, are computed. The set of four control laws is proposed for selected object capable to perform manoeuvres from the considered class. The appropriate controller gain are computed to guarantee the fulfilment of criteria assumed for automatic control. Numerical flight simulations are completed to cover the aforementioned phases of evasive manoeuvre and selected scenarios of objects motion. The results obtained can be treated as the source of information opening the deeper insight into a behaviour of the controlled aircraft in case of known scenario of obstacle’s motion. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.


Skocki K.,Polish Institute of Aviation
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2016

This paper summarizes the preliminary analyses of using existing remote sensing data, medium and high-resolution satellite and airborne data to define safe emergency landing and maneuvering areas to be used by small aircrafts operating from small airports and airfields in Poland. The pilots need to know such places in the interest of safe flight operations. In common practice, flying instructors typically show the student pilot fields around the airfield supposed to be suitable for emergency or precautionary landing (or ditching) in the initial phase of the training. Although it looks to cover the most basic needs, the problem still exists in relation to guest pilots. To fill this gap, the unified safety map document covering the safe emergency areas around the airfields is proposed in this research. Use of satellite high resolution data, as well as aerial photos, infrastructure information, with use of GIS tools (like buffer zones, distance, equal-time circles or position lines) enable to check the terrain around selected airfields and define possible areas suitable for emergency operations. In the second phase of work, selected areas will be described in terms of easy navigation, possible infrastructure around them, rescue possibilities, radio signal coverage, and others. The selected areas should be also checked for typical cover and surface hardness and stability (eg. with use of moisture estimation on the base of middle-resolution satellite data). Its planned to prepare one combined and separate sheets of the final map for various aircraft characteristics ('classes' of small Cessna-related, big Cessna-related, fast low-wing Diamond-like, two-engine Piper-like). The presented concept should highly increase the safety operations for small aviation in secondary airports and airfields, where the information available is limited. There is also a possibility to make a similar maps for 'cruise', which means the areas with dense traffic between the airports/airfields. © 2016 SPIE.


Ratkiewicz R.,Polish Institute of Aviation | Ratkiewicz R.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Strumik M.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Grygorczuk J.,Polish Academy of Sciences
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

We study the effects of the strength and direction of the local interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) on the heliosphere geometry that generates the locus of points associated with the position of the IBEX ribbon of energetic neutral atoms. MHD heliosphere models are run for a variety of ISMF parameters to specifically study the correlation between locations of maxima of the ISMF magnitude along the field lines and places where the local ISMF B is perpendicular to radial vectors r from the Sun, i.e., B · r = 0. The study confirms the existence of a strong physical relationship between the ribbon and the ISMF. © © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..


The issues involved with recording vital functions in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) environment using fiber-optic sensors are considered in this paper. Basic physiological parameters, such as respiration and heart rate, are fundamental for predicting the risk of anxiety, panic, and claustrophobic episodes in patients undergoing MRI examinations. Electronic transducers are generally hazardous to the patient and are prone to erroneous operation in heavily electromagnetically penetrated MRI environments; however, nonmetallic fiberoptic sensors are inherently immune to electromagnetic effects and will be crucial for acquiring the abovementioned physiological parameters. Forty-seven MRI-tested or potentially MRI-compatible sensors have appeared in the literature over the last 20 years. The author classifies these sensors into several categories and subcategories, depending on the sensing element placement, method of application, and measurand type. The author includes five in-house-designed fiber Bragg grating based sensors and shares experience in acquiring physiological measurements during MRI scans. This paper aims to systematize the knowledge of fiber-optic techniques for recording life functions and to indicate the current directions of development in this area. © The Authors.


Kozak J.,Polish Institute of Aviation
Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering | Year: 2013

Electrochemical machining (ECM) is an important manufacture technology in machining difficult-to-cut materials and to shape complicated contours and profiles with high material removal rate without tool wear and without inducing residual stress. This paper presents the physical and mathematical models on the basis of which of the simulation process module in the computer-aided engineering system (CAE-ECM) for ECM has been developed. The results of computer simulation of electrochemical sinking and examples of CAE-ECM system application are discussed. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media.

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