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Narkiewicz K.,Polish Geological Institute National Research Institute
Palaontologische Zeitschrift | Year: 2013

Conodont investigations of the tetrapod-bearing lower Middle Devonian strata in the Holy Cross Mountains (SE Poland) furnished new data on morphological variability and phylogenetic affinities of the early bipennatid form, B. montensis (Weddige 1977), the latter raised herein to species level. B. montensis, and the genus Bipennatus in general, probably developed near the Emsian-Eifelian boundary from ozarkodinids showing an incipient median trough on the upper surface of the blade. In turn, Bipennatus montensis gave rise to B. bipennatus by a gradual development of nodose ridges on both sides of the trough. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Uliasz-Misiak B.,AGH University of Science and Technology | Przybycin A.,Polish Geological Institute National Research Institute | Winid B.,AGH University of Science and Technology
Energy Policy | Year: 2014

Exploitation of unconventional gas is limited by a number of economic, legal, environmental and social factors. When it comes to Poland, legal and environmental factors are of special importance, as they might significantly impact the exploitation of both tight gas and shale gas. Exploitation of unconventional gas deposits, because of the technology needed for opening of these deposits, has relatively great impact on the balance sheet and the quality of water. Polish water resources are limited and depend on time and local circumstances. Therefore, obtaining adequate amounts of water needed to hydraulic fracturing of unconventional gas reservoirs may cause some problems. Another problem is return water management. Injection of contaminated water into the rockmass on a large scale seems to be impossible in Poland. Water discharge to surface waters, which seems to be the most probable solution, would result in deterioration of the purity of Polish rivers. Around 32% of Poland is covered by different forms of protection, which might include limitations in exploitation of hydrocarbon deposits (depending on the type of area).Exploration, documentation and exploitation of unconventional gas in Poland is regulated mainly by the laws and regulations regulating geological and mining activities, environmental protection and waste management. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Pochocka-Szwarc K.,Polish Geological Institute National Research Institute
Acta Palaeobotanica | Year: 2013

The morphology of the Mazury Lake District (north-eastern Poland) dates from 24-19 ka (main stadial of the youngest Vistulian glaciation). During this last glacial maximum (MIS 2) a belt with lacustrine basins was formed when the ice sheet retreated at the end of the Pomeranian phase. The ice-sheet retreat is morphologically also expressed by the occurrence of end moraines. The study area is situated in the Skaliska Basin, in the northern part of the Lake District (near the Polish/ Russian border), at the periphery of zone with end moraines. Originally the basin was an ice-dammed depression filled with melt water; the water flowed out into the developing Pregoła valley when the ice retreated and did no longer dam off the depression. The basin, which is surrounded by hill-shaped moraines, is filled now with Late Glacial and Holocene glaciolacustrine sediments. The organic sediments of the basin record the history of the Late Glacial and Holocene climatic changes in this region.

Waksmundzka M.I.,Polish Geological Institute National Research Institute
Acta Geologica Polonica | Year: 2010

Based on lithofacies analysis of clastic, clay and carbonate rocks, wireline logs and sequence stratigraphy, sixteen depositional sequences have been distinguished in the paralic Carboniferous succession of the Lublin Basin from the Viséan to the base of Westphalian B. The facies evolution and depositional architecture of the deposits belonging to three types of depositional systems tracts, i.e. lowstand (LST), transgressive (TST) and highstand (HST) have been reconstructed. The sequences are bounded by type 1 basal unconformities formed during subaerial erosion following relative sea-level fall and lowstand. This erosion, that in some cases reached down to the LST deposits of the underlying sequences, mainly affected the HST deposits. Relative sea-level rise controlling the base level of the rivers during lowstand was the basic factor influencing facies development, cyclicity and thickness of fluvial deposits, as well as the vertical and lateral transformation of rivers in the paralic Carboniferous succession. Vertical transition of high- to low-energy fluvial environments can be observed within the LST. The LST deposits typically occur in incised shelf valleys and in non-incised fluvial systems. Within the LST of sequences 2 and 4 to 10 commonly occur medium and large systems of simple incised valleys that developed in a coastal-plain system. Th e LST of sequences11 to 15 comprises large systems of compound incised valleys that developed in a piedmont system. Relative sealevel rise in the late lowstand, sea-level oscillations during transgression and highstand and the volume of sediment supply were the main factors influencing facies development, cyclicity, thickness and lateral distribution of the deltaic deposits, shallow-shelf shales and limestones. Within the TST commonly occur coarsening-upward and non-gradational cyclothems that correspond to parasequences and were formed in the distal parts of the inner-shelf delta lobes. In the HST, the most common types are coarsening-upward cyclothems developed during the progradation of innershelf delta lobes and small lake deltas, as well as non-gradational cyclothems formed in lakes on a delta plain without influence of delta lobes. The transgression of sequence 7 probably had the widest extent of all the sequences in the paralic Carboniferous succession of the Lublin Basin. It was presumably much wider to the N, NE and NW than the presently accepted boundaries of the basin. Based on analysis of three curves of relative sea-level changes in the paralic Carboniferous succession of the Lublin Basin and the transgressive-regressive curve for the Carboniferous of Western Europe, the sequences distinguished have been correlated with the chronostratigraphic scheme for the Carboniferous System. The diachronous commencement of sedimentation has been confirmed and evaluated. The lack of deposits of sequence 5 in the eastern part of the basin suggests the presence of a stratigraphic gap encompassing the upper Brigantian. The position and range of stratigraphic gaps present elsewhere in the basin has also been indicated. In the north-westernmost and easternmost parts of the study area the gap has the widest range, encompassing the upper Arnsbergian to lower Marsdenian strata. The mid-Carboniferous boundary between the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian has been located at the base of sequence 8.

Becker A.,Polish Geological Institute National Research Institute
Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae | Year: 2015

In recent years, conchostracan biostratigraphy has become a popular tool for the recognition of the Permian-Triassic boandary and for the chronostratigraphic subdivision of the Triassic in intracontinental settings, including also the bone-bearing Keuper strata of Poland. The ambiguous nature of the new bio-chronostratigraphic approach was characterized in a case study of the Permlan-Trias tic boandary interval. The most important problems were: (1) the lack of documentation of the index species, (2) the indirect correlation with the conodont stratigraphy in marine reference sections through the sporomorph spectra, (3) the lack of definition and documentation of supporting palynologic zones, and (4) difficulties in reliable taxonomic determination of Conchostraca. Testing and, if necessary, revision of the zonation by several independent research groups is suggested. © 2015, Geological Society of Poland. All rights reserved.

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