Polish Academy of Sciences

pan.pl
Warsaw, Poland

The Polish Academy of science, headquartered in Warsaw, is the top Polish institution having the character of an academy of science. Being a society of distinguished scholars as well as a network of research institutes, it is responsible for spearheading the development of science in Poland. It was established in 1951, during the period of Poland People's Republic. Wikipedia.


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News Article | May 11, 2017
Site: www.rdmag.com

At very high energies, the collision of massive atomic nuclei in an accelerator generates hundreds or even thousands of particles that undergo numerous interactions. At the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Cracow, Poland it has been shown that the course of this complex process can be represented by a surprisingly simple model: extremely hot matter moves away from the impact point, stretching along the original flight path in streaks, and the further the streak is from the plane of the collision, the greater its velocity. When two massive atomic nuclei collide at high energies, the most exotic form of matter is formed: the quark-gluon plasma behaving like a perfect fluid. The theoretical considerations of physicists from the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN) in Cracow, Poland show that after impact the plasma forms into streaks along the direction of impact, moving faster the further away it moves from the collision axis. The model, its predictions and the effects of their confrontation with hitherto experimental data are presented in the journal Physical Review C. Collisions of atomic nuclei occur extremely rapidly and at distances of merely hundreds of femtometres (i.e. hundreds of millionths of one billionth of a metre). The physical conditions are exceptionally sophisticated and direct observation of the phenomenon is not currently possible. In such situations, science copes by constructing theoretical models and confronting their predictions with the data collected in experiments. In the case of these collisions, however, a huge disadvantage is that the resulting conglomerate of particles is the quark-gluon plasma. Interactions between quarks and gluons are dominated by forces that are so strong and complex that modern physics is not capable of describing them precisely. "Our group decided to focus on the electromagnetic phenomena occurring during the collision because they are much easier to express in the language of mathematics. As a result, our model proved to be simple enough for us to employ the principles of energy and momentum conservation without too much trouble. Later on, we found that despite the adopted simplifications the model predictions remain at least 90% consistent with experimental data", says Dr. Andrzej Rybicki (IFJ PAN). Massive atomic nuclei accelerated to high velocities, observed in the laboratory, are flattened in the direction of motion as a result of the effects of the theory of relativity. When two such proton-neutron 'pancakes' fly towards each other, the collision is generally not central: only some of the protons and neutrons of one nucleus reach the other, entering into violent interactions and forming the quark-gluon plasma. At the same time, some of the external fragments of the nuclear pancakes do not encounter any obstacles on their way and continue their uninterrupted flight; in the jargon of physicists they are called spectators. "Our work was inspired by data collected in earlier experiments with nuclear collisions, including these made at the SPS accelerator. The electromagnetic effects occurring in these collisions that we examined showed that the quark-gluon plasma moves at a higher velocity the closer it is to the spectators", says Dr. Rybicki. In order to reproduce this course of the phenomenon, the physicists from IFJ PAN decided to divide the nuclei along the direction of movement into a series of strips - 'bricks'. Each nucleus in cross section thus looked like a pile of stacked bricks (in the model their height was one femtometre). Instead of considering the complex strong interactions and flows of momentum and energy between hundreds and thousands of particles, the model reduced the problem to several dozen parallel collisions, each occurring between two proton-neutron bricks. The IFJ PAN scientists confronted the predictions of the model with data collected from collisions of massive nuclei measured by the NA49 experiment at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). This accelerator is located at the CERN European Nuclear Research Organization near Geneva, where one of its most important tasks now is to accelerate particles shot into the LHC accelerator. "Due to the scale of technical difficulties, the NA49 experiment's results are subject to specific measurement uncertainties that are difficult to completely reduce or eliminate. In reality, the accuracy of our model can even be greater than the already mentioned 90%. This entitles us to say that even if there were any additional, still not included, physical mechanisms in the collisions they should no longer significantly affect the theoretical framework of the model", comments doctoral student Miroslaw Kielbowicz (IFJ PAN). After developing the model of collisions of 'brick stacks', the IFJ PAN researchers discovered that a very similar theoretical structure, called the fire streak model, had been proposed by a group of physicists from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (USA) and the Saclay Nuclear Research Centre in France - already in 1978. "The previous model of fire streaks which, in fact, we mention in our publication, was built to describe other collisions occurring at lower energies. We have created our structure independently and for a different energy range", says Prof. Antoni Szczurek (IFJ PAN, University of Rzeszow) and emphasizes: "The existence of two independent models based on a similar physical idea and corresponding to measurements in different energy ranges of collisions increases the probability that the physical basis on which these models are built is correct". The Cracow fire streak model provides new information on the expansion of quark-gluon plasma in high energy collisions of massive atomic nuclei. The study of these phenomena is being further extended in the framework of another international experiment, NA61/SHINE at the SPS accelerator.


News Article | May 11, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

At very high energies, the collision of massive atomic nuclei in an accelerator generates hundreds or even thousands of particles that undergo numerous interactions. At the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Cracow, Poland it has been shown that the course of this complex process can be represented by a surprisingly simple model: extremely hot matter moves away from the impact point, stretching along the original flight path in streaks, and the further the streak is from the plane of the collision, the greater its velocity. When two massive atomic nuclei collide at high energies, the most exotic form of matter is formed: the quark-gluon plasma behaving like a perfect fluid. The theoretical considerations of physicists from the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN) in Cracow, Poland show that after impact the plasma forms into streaks along the direction of impact, moving faster the further away it moves from the collision axis. The model, its predictions and the effects of their confrontation with hitherto experimental data are presented in the journal Physical Review C. Collisions of atomic nuclei occur extremely rapidly and at distances of merely hundreds of femtometres (i.e. hundreds of millionths of one billionth of a metre). The physical conditions are exceptionally sophisticated and direct observation of the phenomenon is not currently possible. In such situations, science copes by constructing theoretical models and confronting their predictions with the data collected in experiments. In the case of these collisions, however, a huge disadvantage is that the resulting conglomerate of particles is the quark-gluon plasma. Interactions between quarks and gluons are dominated by forces that are so strong and complex that modern physics is not capable of describing them precisely. "Our group decided to focus on the electromagnetic phenomena occurring during the collision because they are much easier to express in the language of mathematics. As a result, our model proved to be simple enough for us to employ the principles of energy and momentum conservation without too much trouble. Later on, we found that despite the adopted simplifications the model predictions remain at least 90% consistent with experimental data", says Dr. Andrzej Rybicki (IFJ PAN). Massive atomic nuclei accelerated to high velocities, observed in the laboratory, are flattened in the direction of motion as a result of the effects of the theory of relativity. When two such proton-neutron 'pancakes' fly towards each other, the collision is generally not central: only some of the protons and neutrons of one nucleus reach the other, entering into violent interactions and forming the quark-gluon plasma. At the same time, some of the external fragments of the nuclear pancakes do not encounter any obstacles on their way and continue their uninterrupted flight; in the jargon of physicists they are called spectators. "Our work was inspired by data collected in earlier experiments with nuclear collisions, including these made at the SPS accelerator. The electromagnetic effects occurring in these collisions that we examined showed that the quark-gluon plasma moves at a higher velocity the closer it is to the spectators", says Dr. Rybicki. In order to reproduce this course of the phenomenon, the physicists from IFJ PAN decided to divide the nuclei along the direction of movement into a series of strips - 'bricks'. Each nucleus in cross section thus looked like a pile of stacked bricks (in the model their height was one femtometre). Instead of considering the complex strong interactions and flows of momentum and energy between hundreds and thousands of particles, the model reduced the problem to several dozen parallel collisions, each occurring between two proton-neutron bricks. The IFJ PAN scientists confronted the predictions of the model with data collected from collisions of massive nuclei measured by the NA49 experiment at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). This accelerator is located at the CERN European Nuclear Research Organization near Geneva, where one of its most important tasks now is to accelerate particles shot into the LHC accelerator. "Due to the scale of technical difficulties, the NA49 experiment's results are subject to specific measurement uncertainties that are difficult to completely reduce or eliminate. In reality, the accuracy of our model can even be greater than the already mentioned 90%. This entitles us to say that even if there were any additional, still not included, physical mechanisms in the collisions they should no longer significantly affect the theoretical framework of the model", comments doctoral student Miroslaw Kielbowicz (IFJ PAN). After developing the model of collisions of 'brick stacks', the IFJ PAN researchers discovered that a very similar theoretical structure, called the fire streak model, had been proposed by a group of physicists from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (USA) and the Saclay Nuclear Research Centre in France - already in 1978. "The previous model of fire streaks which, in fact, we mention in our publication, was built to describe other collisions occurring at lower energies. We have created our structure independently and for a different energy range", says Prof. Antoni Szczurek (IFJ PAN, University of Rzeszow) and emphasizes: "The existence of two independent models based on a similar physical idea and corresponding to measurements in different energy ranges of collisions increases the probability that the physical basis on which these models are built is correct". The Cracow fire streak model provides new information on the expansion of quark-gluon plasma in high energy collisions of massive atomic nuclei. The study of these phenomena is being further extended in the framework of another international experiment, NA61/SHINE at the SPS accelerator. The research of the IFJ PAN group is being financed by the SONATA BIS grant from the National Science Centre. The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ PAN) is currently the largest research institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences. The broad range of studies and activities of IFJ PAN includes basic and applied research, ranging from particle physics and astrophysics, through hadron physics, high-, medium-, and low-energy nuclear physics, condensed matter physics (including materials engineering), to various applications of methods of nuclear physics in interdisciplinary research, covering medical physics, dosimetry, radiation and environmental biology, environmental protection, and other related disciplines. The average yearly yield of the IFJ PAN encompasses more than 500 scientific papers in the Journal Citation Reports published by the Thomson Reuters. The part of the Institute is the Cyclotron Centre Bronowice (CCB) which is an infrastructure, unique in Central Europe, to serve as a clinical and research centre in the area of medical and nuclear physics. IFJ PAN is a member of the Marian Smoluchowski Krakow Research Consortium: "Matter-Energy-Future" which possesses the status of a Leading National Research Centre (KNOW) in physics for the years 2012-2017. The Institute is of A+ Category (leading level in Poland) in the field of sciences and engineering. Dr. Andrzej Rybicki The Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences tel.: +48 12 6628447 email: andrzej.rybicki@ifj.edu.pl Prof. Antoni Szczurek The Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences tel. +48 12 6628212 email: antoni.szczurek@ifj.edu.pl "Implications of energy and momentum conservation for particle emission in A+A collisions at energies available at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron" http://shine. The website of the SHINE experiment. http://www. The website of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). http://www. The website of the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences. http://press. Press releases of the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Fragments of extremely hot matter, produced in the collision of heavy atomic nuclei at the SPS accelerator at the European CERN centre, move away from each other at high velocities, forming streaks along the direction of the collision. (Source: IFJ PAN, Iwona Sputowska)


News Article | May 26, 2017
Site: www.materialstoday.com

Conventional computers use bits of information, binary digits. The quantum computer will use qubits, quantum bits. Now, researchers at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw, have demonstrated that the chemical bit, the chit, can be formed from three touching droplets undergoing strictly defined oscillatory chemical reactions. Konrad Gizynski and Jerzy Gorecki have demonstrated working memory in such a system based on the well-known Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) oscillating reaction. In their system, the team added ruthenium as well as the standard ferroin catalyst in the BZ reaction. This additional catalyst makes the system photosensitive so that shining a blue light on it halts the oscillation. "Our idea for the chemical storage of information was simple," explains Gorecki. "From our previous experiments we knew that when BZ droplets are in contact, chemical fronts can propagate from droplet to droplet. So we decided to look for the smallest droplet systems in which excitations could take place in several ways, with at least two being stable. We could then assign one sequence of excitations a logic value of 0, the other 1, and in order to switch between them, that is, to force a particular change of memory state, we could use light." The team's proof of principle involved pipetting the requisite three droplets into decane and positioning the system above the ends of optical fibers. The droplets form a triangle so that each droplet touches its two neighbors and oscillatory chemical fronts can propagate through this arrangement in different ways. They were after a reversible "1-2-3" sequence that would give them two states to represent a "1" and a "0" in binary. Moreover, a circular sequence like this would resemble a spiral wave and so be more stable than back and forth oscillations. The team then showed that correctly selecting the time and length of illumination of appropriate droplets, they could change the direction of rotation 1-2-3 to 3-2-1, giving them control over the binary state. [Gizynski and Gorecki, Phys Chem Chem Phys (2017): DOI: 10.1039/c6cp07492h] "In fact, our chemical bit has a slightly greater potential than the classical bit. The rotational modes we used to record states 0 and 1 had the shortest oscillation periods of 18.7 and 19.5 seconds, respectively. So if the system oscillated any slower, we could talk about an additional third logic state," adds Gizynski. The third state in this case could be used as a check digit. The research itself is of a fundamental nature at this stage, of course, we are probably some time away before a true chemical computer using chits becomes a reality. "We have [also] published a numerical paper on BZ-droplets based classifiers where light is used to implement a classification function into a system composed of 25 interacting BZ droplets," Gizynski told Materials Today. "Now, we're working on building such a classifier in experimental system." Figure: Three droplets with circulating chemical fronts can store information. The first chemical bit has been demonstrated by researchers from the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw. (Image credit: IPC PAS, Grzegorz Krzyzewski) David Bradley blogs at Sciencebase Science Blog and tweets @sciencebase, he is author of the popular science book "Deceived Wisdom".


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-1-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 10.00M | Year: 2016

ENSAR2 is the integrating activity for European nuclear scientists who are performing research in three of the major subfields defined by NuPECC: Nuclear Structure and Dynamics, Nuclear Astrophysics and Nuclear Physics Tools and Applications. It proposes an optimised ensemble of Networking (NAs), Joint Research (JRAs) and Transnational Access Activities (TAs), which will ensure qualitative and quantitative improvement of the access provided by the current ten infrastructures, which are at the core of this proposal. The novel and innovative developments that will be achieved by the RTD activities will also assure state-of-the-art technology needed for the new large-scale projects. Our community of nuclear scientists profits from the diverse range of world-class research infrastructures all over Europe that can supply different ion beams and energies and, with ELI-NP, high-intensity gamma-ray beams up to 20 MeV. We have made great effort to make the most efficient use of these facilities by developing the most advanced and novel equipment needed to pursue their excellent scientific programmes and applying state-of-the-art developments to other fields and to benefit humanity (e.g. archaeology, medical imaging). Together with multidisciplinary and application-oriented research at the facilities, these activities ensure a high-level socio-economic impact. To enhance the access to these facilities, the community has defined a number of JRAs, using as main criterion scientific and technical promise. These activities deal with novel and innovative technologies to improve the operation of the facilities. The NAs of ENSAR2 have been set-up with specific actions to strengthen the communities coherence around certain resarch topics and to ensure a broad dissemination of results and stimulate multidisciplinary, application-oriented research and innovation at the Research Infrastructures.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: ICT-30-2015 | Award Amount: 7.33M | Year: 2016

INTER-IoT project is aiming at the design, implementation and experimentation of an open cross-layer framework and associated methodology to provide voluntary interoperability among heterogeneous Internet of Things (IoT) platforms. The proposal will allow developing effectively and efficiently smart IoT applications, atop different heterogeneous IoT platforms, spanning single and/or multiple application domains. The overall goal of the INTER-IoT project is to provide a interoperable framework architecture for seamless integration of different IoT architectures present in different application domains. Interoperability will be provided at different levels: device, network, middleware, services and data. The two application domains and use cases addressed in the project and in which the IoT framework will be applied are m-health and port transportation and logistics. The project outcome may optimize different operations (e.g. increasing efficiency in transportation time; reducing CO2 emission in a port environment; improving access control and safety; improving remote patient attendance and increase the number of subject that surgery units can assist using the mobile devices with the same resources; reducing time spent in hospitals premises or reduce the time dedicated to the assistance activities carried out directly at the surgery with advantage for subjects in charge and also benefits those waiting, i.e. reduction of the waiting list) in the two addresses domains, but it may be extended to other application domains in which there is a need to interconnect different IoT architectures already deployed. The project may deal with interoperability at different layers.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: INFRADEV-03-2016-2017 | Award Amount: 3.88M | Year: 2017

The objectives of the IDEAAL Project are to explore all possibilities to develop GANIL infrastructure, with its new ESFRI SPIRAL2 facility, in order to ensure its long-term sustainability as one of the premiere European research institutes for nuclear physics, interdisciplinary sciences and related applications. The first objective of the IDEAAL Project is to enlarge the present GANIL membership to include academic institutions and private funding partners. This enlargement goes hand-in-hand with a reinforcement of the involvement of the current institutional funders and academic users of GANIL-SPIRAL2 in the decision-making process and management of the facility. The second objective of IDEAAL is to enhance the excellence of access to the infrastructure by optimizing support to the users, access policy, assessment on the cost of access to the facilities and to data, improvement of the performance capabilities as well as exchange and training of personnel with associated partners. Innovation is the third objective of IDEAAL. With the new facility SPIRAL2, it is essential to encourage industrial users of the uniqueness of this new machine for their research and applications and to allow them to develop new experimental tools at the existing GANIL facilities. Access provision dedicated to industrial users will greatly enhance their experience and increase their interest and trust in GANIL-SPIRAL2. In parallel, new ideas and topics for technology transfer will be clearly identified. The increase of innovation potential of GANIL will also be evaluated. These three objectives must be supported by a strong communication and outreach policy towards members and funding partners, users and the layman. This is the fourth objective of the project. Fulfilling all of these four objectives will allow a well-organized, highly efficient and sustainable development of the current GANIL structure.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: INFRAINNOV-02-2016 | Award Amount: 2.28M | Year: 2017

Development and construction of accelerator based scientific Research Infrastructures are going through a deep paradigm change because of the need for large scale Technological Infrastructures at the forefront of technology to master the key accelerator and magnet science and technology needed for several fields. Indeed, because of the high technological level and of the increased size and time scale of projects, development and construction require more and more sophisticated R&D platforms on key accelerator and magnet technologies, large-scale facilities for their assembly, integration and verification, large concentrations of dedicated skilled personnel and long term relationships between laboratories and industry. In response to those challenges, a few large platforms specialized in interdisciplinary technologies and for applications of direct benefit to society are emerging. The emerging Technological Infrastructure is aiming at creating an efficient integrated ecosystem among laboratories focussed on R&D, with a long term vision for the technological needs of future RIs and industry, including SME, motivated by the innovative environment and the market created by the realisation of the technological needs of several RIs. With a timeline of 30 months, involving 10 Consortium partners, the AMICI proposal will ensure that A) a stronger and optimised integration model between the large existing technological infrastructures is developed and agreed upon, B) that this integrated ecosystem is attracting industries and fostering innovation based on accelerator and SC magnets cutting-edge developments, C) that strategy and roadmaps are clearly defined and understood to strongly position European industries and SMEs on the market of the construction of new Research Infrastructures worldwide, and D) that potential societal applications are identified and disseminated to the relevant partners of this ecosystem.


Colmenares J.C.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Luque R.,University of Cordoba, Spain
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014

Heterogeneous photocatalysis has become a comprehensively studied area of research during the past three decades due to its practical interest in applications including water-air depollution, cancer therapy, sterilization, artificial photosynthesis (CO2 photoreduction), anti-fogging surfaces, heat transfer and heat dissipation, anticorrosion, lithography, photochromism, solar chemicals production and many others. The utilization of solar irradiation to supply energy or to initiate chemical reactions is already an established idea. Excited electron-hole pairs are generated upon light irradiation of a wide-band gap semiconductor which can be applied to solar cells to generate electricity or in chemical processes to create/degrade specific compounds. While the field of heterogeneous photocatalysis for pollutant abatement and mineralisation of contaminants has been extensively investigated, a new research avenue related to the selective valorisation of residues has recently emerged as a promising alternative to utilise solar light for the production of valuable chemicals and fuels. This tutorial review will focus on the potential and applications of solid photonanocatalysts for the selective transformation of biomass-derived substrates. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Szumna A.,Polish Academy of Sciences
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2010

This tutorial review covers the recent development in the synthesis and application of molecules and finite assemblies that are chiral owing to their curvature. A modified definition of inherent chirality is provided. Various classes of chiral concave molecules are presented including salphen complexes, cyclic amides, derivatives of sumanene, trioxatricornan or subphthalocyanine, cyclotriveratrylenes, homooxacalix[3]arenes, calixarenes, resorcinarenes, phthalocyanines, corannulenes and cavitands. Some of these bowl shaped compounds exhibit high inversion barriers, comparable with the stability of classical carbon chirality centres, while the others (e.g. hydrogen bonded assemblies) can only be detected by NMR. This review is focused on practical aspects of synthesis, resolution and applications in chiral recognition and asymmetric synthesis. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Makosza M.,Polish Academy of Sciences
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2010

The aim of this tutorial review is to present two main messages. First, addition of nucleophilic agents to electron-deficient arenes proceeds faster in positions occupied by hydrogen than in those, equally activated, occupied by halogens or other nucleofugal groups. Thanks to numerous ways of further, fast conversion of the produced σH adducts into products of nucleophilic substitution of hydrogen, this is the main primary reaction between nucleophiles and electron-deficient arenes. Conventional nucleophilic substitution of halogen, SNAr reaction, is a secondary process that takes place when ways for fast further conversion of σH adducts are not available. The second message is that nucleophilic substitution of hydrogen is an efficient tool in organic synthesis. In order to stress the preference for nucleophilic substitution of hydrogen, halonitroarenes are chosen as examples of reacting electron-deficient arenes, but it is obvious that the presence of halogen is not necessary for substitution of hydrogen. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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