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Warsaw, Poland

The Polish Academy of science, headquartered in Warsaw, is the top Polish institution having the character of an academy of science. Being a society of distinguished scholars as well as a network of research institutes, it is responsible for spearheading the development of science in Poland. It was established in 1951, during the period of Poland People's Republic. Wikipedia.


Piechota M.,Polish Academy of Sciences
Genome biology | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Various drugs of abuse activate intracellular pathways in the brain reward system. These pathways regulate the expression of genes that are essential to the development of addiction. To reveal genes common and distinct for different classes of drugs of abuse, we compared the effects of nicotine, ethanol, cocaine, morphine, heroin and methamphetamine on gene expression profiles in the mouse striatum. RESULTS: We applied whole-genome microarray profiling to evaluate detailed time-courses (1, 2, 4 and 8 hours) of transcriptome alterations following acute drug administration in mice. We identified 42 drug-responsive genes that were segregated into two main transcriptional modules. The first module consisted of activity-dependent transcripts (including Fos and Npas4), which are induced by psychostimulants and opioids. The second group of genes (including Fkbp5 and S3-12), which are controlled, in part, by the release of steroid hormones, was strongly activated by ethanol and opioids. Using pharmacological tools, we were able to inhibit the induction of particular modules of drug-related genomic profiles. We selected a subset of genes for validation by in situ hybridization and quantitative PCR. We also showed that knockdown of the drug-responsive genes Sgk1 and Tsc22d3 resulted in alterations to dendritic spines in mice, possibly reflecting an altered potential for plastic changes. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified modules of drug-induced genes that share functional relationships. These genes may play a critical role in the early stages of addiction. Source


Bednarek P.,Polish Academy of Sciences
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2012

In plants, a host's responses to an attempted infection include activation of various secondary metabolite pathways, some of which are specific for particular plant phylogenetic clades. Phytochemicals that represent respective end products in plant immunity have been stereotypically linked to antimicrobial properties. However, in many cases, owing to the lack of unequivocal evidence for direct antibiotic action in planta, alternative functions of secondary metabolites should be considered. Correspondingly, recent findings have identified novel, and rather unexpected, functions of phytochemicals in plant immunity that mediate regulatory pathways for conserved defence responses. It also seems likely that these conserved responses can be regulated by clade-specific phytochemicals. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Swiatek B.J.,Polish Academy of Sciences
Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews | Year: 2012

The clinical outcome of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection varies between individuals - from spontaneous viral clearance and persistence without complication, to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Also patterns of response to interferon-based anti-HCV therapy are different from person to person. This diversity may be affected by host genetic factors, including alterations in genes encoding cytokines. Interleukin-10, as an anti-inflammatory cytokine and immune response modulator, may influence on HCV infection susceptibility as well as spontaneous and treatment-induced HCV eradication. Moreover, it is stated that IL-10 has antifibrotic properties and play a role in progression of liver disease. This review summarized studies on interleukin-10 gene polymorphisms (mainly promoter SNPs at positions -1082(G/A), -819(C/T) and -592(C/A)), which may determine IL-10 production, regarding susceptibility to HCV infection, course of HCV-related liver disease (fibrosis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, ALT abnormalities), spontaneous viral elimination as well as hepatitis C treatment outcomes. Analysis of hereby summarized studies shows that it is difficult to unambiguously determine the importance of IL-10 polymorphism as a predictor of clinical outcome of hepatitis C and response to anti-HCV therapy before its beginning. Thus, future larger studies need to address these issues. Continuation of studies on interleukin-10 polymorphisms as well as identification of other candidate predictive markers in HCV infection has important practical implications and there is a chance that may contribute to reduce the scale of hepatitis C problem. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Adamczyk Z.,Polish Academy of Sciences
Current Opinion in Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2012

Recent developments in the modeling of particle and protein adsorption kinetics on solid surfaces are discussed. Emphasis is focused on the coarse-grained methods, where protein molecules are treated as particles having a regular shape (spheres, spheroids) or a system of spherical beads of various sizes. Using such approaches hydrodynamic radii and diffusion coefficients of protein molecules are calculated in an exact way using the linear Stokes equation. Additionally, the surface blocking functions and jamming coverages for such molecule shapes are determined using the random sequential adsorption simulations. Theoretical results obtained in this way for various molecule shapes, including the bead models of fibrinogen are discussed. Knowing the jamming coverage and blocking functions one can formulate boundary conditions for bulk transport equations. Solutions of these equations for the convection and diffusion-controlled transport are presented. These theoretical predictions proved adequate for interpreting experimental data obtained for fibrinogen using AFM, ellipsometry and fluorescence methods. It is, therefore, concluded that these coarse grained approaches combined with solutions of the continuity equation can be efficiently used for quantitatively predicting protein adsorption kinetics for the time scale met under practical situations. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Wojdyr M.,Polish Academy of Sciences
Journal of Applied Crystallography | Year: 2010

Fityk is portable, open-source software for nonlinear curve fitting and data analysis. It specializes in fitting a sum of bell-shaped functions to experimental data. In particular, it enables Pawley refinement of powder diffraction data and size-strain analysis. © 2010 International Union of Crystallography Printed in Singapore-all rights reserved. Source

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