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Zhang Z.,Zhejiang University | Cai W.,Zhejiang University | Feng X.,Policy Research Center for Environment and economics
Energy Policy | Year: 2017

China is the largest electricity consumption country after it has passed the United States in 2011. Residential electricity consumption in China grew by 381.35% (12.85% per annum) between 2000 and 2013. In order to deal with rapid growth in residential electricity consumption, an increasing block pricing policy was introduced for residential electricity consumers in China on July 1st, 2012. Using difference-in-differences models with a fuzzy regression discontinuity design, we estimate a causal effect of price on electricity consumption for urban households during the introduction of increasing block pricing policy in Guangdong province of China. We find that consumers do not respond to a smaller (approximately 8%) increase in marginal price. However, consumers do respond to a larger increase in marginal price. An approximately 40% increase in marginal price induces an approximately 35% decrease in electricity use (284 kW h per month). Our results suggest that although the increasing block pricing could affect the behavior of households with higher electricity use, there is only a limit potential to overall energy conservation. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Gu J.J.,Beijing Normal University | Guo P.,China Agricultural University | Huang G.H.,Beijing Normal University | Huang G.H.,University of Regina | And 2 more authors.
Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment | Year: 2013

An inexact stochastic fuzzy programming (ISFP) approach has been developed for the optimization of the industrial structure in resource-based city subjected to water resources under uncertainty in present study. The ISFP method incorporates the techniques of inexact stochastic programming and inexact fuzzy chance-constrained programming, where the uncertainties are expressed as interval, fuzzy sets, and probability distribution, respectively. Moreover, it can also examine the risk of violating fuzzy tolerance constraints. The developed method is subsequently employed in a realistic case for industrial development in the Jinchang city, Gansu province, China. The result can help to analyze whether the water resources carrying capacity of Jinchang can meet the need of local economic development plan under uncertainty and help decision maker to optimize the industry structure under water resource constraints to meet the maximum economic efficiency. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Wang C.,Beijing Normal University | Zhang L.,Beijing Normal University | Yang S.,Policy Research Center for Environment and economics | Pang M.,Beijing Normal University
Energies | Year: 2012

Small-scale bio-energy projects have been launched in rural areas of China and are considered as alternatives to fossil-fuel energy. However, energetic and environmental evaluation of these projects has rarely been carried out, though it is necessary for their long-term development. A village-level biomass gasification project provides an example. A hybrid life-cycle assessment (LCA) of its total nonrenewable energy (NE) cost and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is presented in this paper. The results show that the total energy cost for one joule of biomass gas output from the project is 2.93 J, of which 0.89 J is from nonrenewable energy, and the related GHG emission cost is 1.17 × 10 -4 g CO 2-eq over its designed life cycle of 20 years. To provide equivalent effective calorific value for cooking work, the utilization of one joule of biomass gas will lead to more life cycle NE cost by 0.07 J and more GHG emissions by 8.92 × 10 -5 g CO 2-eq compared to natural gas taking into consideration of the difference in combustion efficiency and calorific value. The small-scale bio-energy project has fallen into dilemma, i.e., struggling for survival, and for a more successful future development of village-level gasification projects, much effort is needed to tide over the plight of its development, such as high cost and low efficiency caused by decentralized construction, technical shortcomings and low utilization rate of by-products. © 2012 by the authors.

Yang J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Yang J.,University of International Business and Economics | Wang X.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Ma H.,Henan Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Applied Energy | Year: 2014

China's energy needs and its environment are facing great challenges because of the country's rapid urbanization and industrialization. It is China's strategic choice to exploit renewable energy to guarantee its energy security and reduce CO2 emissions. Crop residue has been identified and targeted by the Chinese government as a promising renewable energy resource. The purposes of this study are to investigate the potential supply of crop residue nationally and regionally, the vertical value chain from the field to final usage of these crop residues, as well as to conduct cost-benefit analysis on power plant-based crop residue. Our results show that the large amount of crop residue in China has great potential to meet the country's demand for renewable energy. Crop residues, however, are distributed unequally across regions. Therefore the use of crop residues to produce energy should be different across provinces, especially with respect to large power generation plants. Government supports right now are critical for power plants based on crop residue to survive. Based on our findings, it is suggested that China should attach more importance to technology innovation and creative policy reforms to improve the overall efficiency of the industry and reduce the cost of feedstock. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Wu H.,Anhui University of Science and Technology | Yuan Z.,Nanjing University | Zhang Y.,Policy Research Center for Environment and economics | Gao L.,Anhui University of Science and Technology | Liu S.,Anhui University of Science and Technology
Resources, Conservation and Recycling | Year: 2014

The rapid increase of phosphorus (P) use in farming has raised concerns regarding its conservation and environmental impact. Increasing the P use efficiency (PUE) is an approach to mitigating these adverse impacts. In this study, we applied substance flow analysis (SFA) to establish a life-cycle P use efficiency model to determine the life-cycle PUE of the farming system used in Anhui Province in 2011, which is typical of the agriculture practiced in central China. Based on this model, the P flows and PUEs of five subsystems were identified and quantified: crop farming, crop processing, livestock breeding, rural living, and urban living. The three largest P flows were found in the crop farming and livestock breeding subsystems; it can therefore be concluded that these subsystems have substantial impacts on the entire farming system. In contrast, the PUEs of crop farming, rural consumption, and livestock breeding subsystems presented the three lowest PUEs (58.79%, 71.75%, and 76.65%, respectively). These results were also consistent with the finding that the greatest P losses occurred in crop farming and livestock breeding. Consequently, the study proposes that great potential exists for increasing PUEs in the farming system of Anhui, and several of the most promising measures could be combined for improving PUEs. Finally, the study assesses data quality and presents a sensitivity analysis for use in interpreting the results. The study also shows that improving PUE and decreasing P losses in farming systems through improved nutrient management must be considered an important issue, and this study represents valuable experience in resource conservation and agricultural development in China.

Yin Y.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Wu S.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Chen G.,Policy Research Center for Environment and economics | Dai E.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research
Theoretical and Applied Climatology | Year: 2010

This paper focuses on the primary causes of changes in potential evapotranspiration (ETo) in order to comprehensively understand climate change and its impact on hydrological cycle. Based on modified Penman-Monteith model, ETo is simulated, and its changes are attributed by analyzing the sensitivity of ETo to influence meteorological variables together with their changes for 595 meteorological stations across China during the period 1961-2008. Results show the decreasing trends of ETo in the whole country and in most climate regions except the cold temperate humid region in Northeast China. For China as a whole, the decreasing trend of ETo is primarily attributed to wind speed due to its significant decreasing trend and high sensitivity. Relative humidity is the highest sensitive variable; however, it has negligible effect on ETo for its insignificant trend. The positive contribution of temperature rising to ETo is offset by the effect of wind speed and sunshine duration. In addition, primary causes to ETo changes are varied for differing climate regions. ETo changes are attributed to decreased wind speed in most climate regions mainly distributed in West China and North China, to declined sunshine duration in subtropical and tropical humid regions in South China, and to increased maximum temperature in the cold temperate humid region. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

Wang J.S.,Policy Research Center for Environment and economics
Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi | Year: 2012

To compare the designing effects (DE) among different complex sampling designing programs. Data from the '2002 Chinese Nutrition and Health Survey' was used as an example to generate the sampling population, and statistical simulation method was used to estimate the values of DEs from six complex sampling designing programs. It was found that the values of DEs varied among the six complex sampling designing programs. The values of the DEs were associated with the sample sizes in a positive way, with more sample stages and less stratified categories. Reduction of the numbers of sample stages and detailing stratified categories could decrease the DE values so as to improve the DE.

Wang H.,Policy Research Center for Environment and economics | Shi Y.,University of California at San Diego | Kim Y.,The World Bank | Kamata T.,The World Bank
Ecological Economics | Year: 2013

Even though surface water has been polluted almost everywhere in China, few economic valuation studies have been conducted to value water quality changes. This paper reports an economic valuation study conducted in Yunnan, China, which estimates the total value of a real investment project to improve the water quality of Lake Puzhehei by one grade level. Located in Qiubei County far from big cities, the lake has been experiencing rapid water quality deterioration in past several years. Based on the multiple bounded discrete choice approach, an average household in Qiubei County is estimated to be willing to pay 30 yuan per month continuously for 5. years for the water quality improvement by one grade level, roughly equivalent to 3% of the average household income. The elasticity of willingness-to-pay with respect to income is estimated to be 0.21. The economic rate of return of the proposed project is estimated to be 18%, indicating an economically favorable investment in water quality improvement. This study also demonstrates that the previous knowledge about the water quality changes and about the project can have significant positive impacts on people's willingness to pay, whereas the interviewer effect on valuation can be negative. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Lv Y.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Gu S.-z.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Guo D.-m.,Policy Research Center for Environment and economics
Ecological Economics | Year: 2010

Environmental externalities generated by agriculture are attracting considerable attention. However, most research has focused either on environmental services that agriculture provides as a distinct ecosystem or the negative environmental impacts that agriculture imposes. Therefore, there is a great need to re-evaluate the all-round environmental roles of agriculture, to optimize environmental performance of agriculture and non-trade concerns in World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations. By valuing the environmental externalities of agriculture, this article aims to heighten awareness of the environmental roles of agriculture to stimulate its implication in agricultural policy-making. The study presents estimates of economic values of environmental externalities from rice-wheat farming system in Zhenjiang, in aspects of greenhouse gas emissions, non-point source pollution, carbon sequestration and water containing capacity. We provide a step-by-step analytic procedure, with each step including measurement of physical dimensions and monetary evaluation. The former is based on a large-scale literature review, which provided a vital foundation for the monetary valuation. The results reveal that the values of greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural land, agricultural non-point source pollution, carbon sequestration by crop and soil, and the flood control function provided by agricultural land are estimated as: - US$3.61 × 107 a- 1, - US$4.59 × 106 a- 1, + US$2.30 × 109 a- 1 and + US$2.21 × 107 a- 1, respectively. The net value of environmental externalities is as high as + US$2.28 × 109 a- 1, representing 17.87% of local GDP and 4.12 times the total agricultural output value in 2006. The results suggest that crops and soil in Zhenjiang are the most important carbon sinks, and that agriculture in Zhenjiang has huge positive environmental externalities, although both greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural land and agricultural non-point sources pollution have negative environmental impacts. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Geng R.,Capital Normal University | Geng R.,Policy Research Center for Environment and economics | Wang X.,Capital Normal University | Sharpley A.,University of Arkansas
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2015

Best management practices (BMPs) are being implemented to reduce nonpoint sources pollution in China and worldwide. The effectiveness of individual BMPs is usually assessed through controlled experiments. Field evaluation of the effectiveness of a great majority of BMPs is limited by cost of implementation, site-specific response, and length of time needed to document reliable response. Nonpoint source pollution (NPS) models are increasingly relied upon to estimate water quality response to BMP implementation. This study has developed and tested a tool for estimating the effectiveness of BMPs in controlling NPS pollution by collecting and analyzing existing data from previous studies. It includes 60 BMPs grouped into six classes. Data from combined soil and slope analyses were used to design a BMP effectiveness estimator driven by hydrologic soil groups and slope classes using Visual Basic for Applications and Structured Query Language. This tool includes five primary functions, namely: (1) effectiveness assessment for single or combined BMP, (2) statistical analyses for BMP effectiveness; (3) informational inquiry about individual BMPs; (4) updating and editing the BMPs database; and (5) external expansion as new information becomes available. The tool was tested and validated for BMPs selection in a 27.28 km2 watershed, located within the upper watershed of the Miyun Reservoir in Beijing. Results demonstrate that the tool can be served as an efficient and easy tool for identifying potentially useful BMPs in agricultural areas in China. Overall, this will also allow water environmental professionals to make more confident and accurate BMP recommendations and manage watersheds more effectively. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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