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Yang J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Yang J.,University of International Business and Economics | Wang X.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Ma H.,Henan Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Applied Energy | Year: 2014

China's energy needs and its environment are facing great challenges because of the country's rapid urbanization and industrialization. It is China's strategic choice to exploit renewable energy to guarantee its energy security and reduce CO2 emissions. Crop residue has been identified and targeted by the Chinese government as a promising renewable energy resource. The purposes of this study are to investigate the potential supply of crop residue nationally and regionally, the vertical value chain from the field to final usage of these crop residues, as well as to conduct cost-benefit analysis on power plant-based crop residue. Our results show that the large amount of crop residue in China has great potential to meet the country's demand for renewable energy. Crop residues, however, are distributed unequally across regions. Therefore the use of crop residues to produce energy should be different across provinces, especially with respect to large power generation plants. Government supports right now are critical for power plants based on crop residue to survive. Based on our findings, it is suggested that China should attach more importance to technology innovation and creative policy reforms to improve the overall efficiency of the industry and reduce the cost of feedstock. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Yin Y.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Wu S.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Chen G.,Policy Research Center for Environment and economics | Dai E.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research
Theoretical and Applied Climatology | Year: 2010

This paper focuses on the primary causes of changes in potential evapotranspiration (ETo) in order to comprehensively understand climate change and its impact on hydrological cycle. Based on modified Penman-Monteith model, ETo is simulated, and its changes are attributed by analyzing the sensitivity of ETo to influence meteorological variables together with their changes for 595 meteorological stations across China during the period 1961-2008. Results show the decreasing trends of ETo in the whole country and in most climate regions except the cold temperate humid region in Northeast China. For China as a whole, the decreasing trend of ETo is primarily attributed to wind speed due to its significant decreasing trend and high sensitivity. Relative humidity is the highest sensitive variable; however, it has negligible effect on ETo for its insignificant trend. The positive contribution of temperature rising to ETo is offset by the effect of wind speed and sunshine duration. In addition, primary causes to ETo changes are varied for differing climate regions. ETo changes are attributed to decreased wind speed in most climate regions mainly distributed in West China and North China, to declined sunshine duration in subtropical and tropical humid regions in South China, and to increased maximum temperature in the cold temperate humid region. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

Wu H.,Anhui University of Science and Technology | Yuan Z.,Nanjing University | Zhang Y.,Policy Research Center for Environment and economics | Gao L.,Anhui University of Science and Technology | Liu S.,Anhui University of Science and Technology
Resources, Conservation and Recycling | Year: 2014

The rapid increase of phosphorus (P) use in farming has raised concerns regarding its conservation and environmental impact. Increasing the P use efficiency (PUE) is an approach to mitigating these adverse impacts. In this study, we applied substance flow analysis (SFA) to establish a life-cycle P use efficiency model to determine the life-cycle PUE of the farming system used in Anhui Province in 2011, which is typical of the agriculture practiced in central China. Based on this model, the P flows and PUEs of five subsystems were identified and quantified: crop farming, crop processing, livestock breeding, rural living, and urban living. The three largest P flows were found in the crop farming and livestock breeding subsystems; it can therefore be concluded that these subsystems have substantial impacts on the entire farming system. In contrast, the PUEs of crop farming, rural consumption, and livestock breeding subsystems presented the three lowest PUEs (58.79%, 71.75%, and 76.65%, respectively). These results were also consistent with the finding that the greatest P losses occurred in crop farming and livestock breeding. Consequently, the study proposes that great potential exists for increasing PUEs in the farming system of Anhui, and several of the most promising measures could be combined for improving PUEs. Finally, the study assesses data quality and presents a sensitivity analysis for use in interpreting the results. The study also shows that improving PUE and decreasing P losses in farming systems through improved nutrient management must be considered an important issue, and this study represents valuable experience in resource conservation and agricultural development in China.

Gu J.J.,Beijing Normal University | Guo P.,China Agricultural University | Huang G.H.,Beijing Normal University | Huang G.H.,University of Regina | And 2 more authors.
Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment | Year: 2013

An inexact stochastic fuzzy programming (ISFP) approach has been developed for the optimization of the industrial structure in resource-based city subjected to water resources under uncertainty in present study. The ISFP method incorporates the techniques of inexact stochastic programming and inexact fuzzy chance-constrained programming, where the uncertainties are expressed as interval, fuzzy sets, and probability distribution, respectively. Moreover, it can also examine the risk of violating fuzzy tolerance constraints. The developed method is subsequently employed in a realistic case for industrial development in the Jinchang city, Gansu province, China. The result can help to analyze whether the water resources carrying capacity of Jinchang can meet the need of local economic development plan under uncertainty and help decision maker to optimize the industry structure under water resource constraints to meet the maximum economic efficiency. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Wang C.,Beijing Normal University | Zhang L.,Beijing Normal University | Yang S.,Policy Research Center for Environment and economics | Pang M.,Beijing Normal University
Energies | Year: 2012

Small-scale bio-energy projects have been launched in rural areas of China and are considered as alternatives to fossil-fuel energy. However, energetic and environmental evaluation of these projects has rarely been carried out, though it is necessary for their long-term development. A village-level biomass gasification project provides an example. A hybrid life-cycle assessment (LCA) of its total nonrenewable energy (NE) cost and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is presented in this paper. The results show that the total energy cost for one joule of biomass gas output from the project is 2.93 J, of which 0.89 J is from nonrenewable energy, and the related GHG emission cost is 1.17 × 10 -4 g CO 2-eq over its designed life cycle of 20 years. To provide equivalent effective calorific value for cooking work, the utilization of one joule of biomass gas will lead to more life cycle NE cost by 0.07 J and more GHG emissions by 8.92 × 10 -5 g CO 2-eq compared to natural gas taking into consideration of the difference in combustion efficiency and calorific value. The small-scale bio-energy project has fallen into dilemma, i.e., struggling for survival, and for a more successful future development of village-level gasification projects, much effort is needed to tide over the plight of its development, such as high cost and low efficiency caused by decentralized construction, technical shortcomings and low utilization rate of by-products. © 2012 by the authors.

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