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Kriszbacher I.,University of Pecs | Bodis J.,University of Pecs | Boncz I.,Policy and Management | Koppan A.,University of Pecs | Koppan M.,University of Pecs
International Journal of Cardiology

We investigated whether the time of sunrise and the number of daylight hours have an effect on the seasonality, or the daily rhythm of heart attack mortality. We analyzed retrospectively data of patients admitted to hospitals with the diagnosis of heart attack (n = 32,329) and patients who deceased of a heart attack (n = 5142) between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2005 in Hungary. Heart attack mortality was highest during winter, while lowest number of events was recorded during summer . The daily peak of diurnality was between 6:00 am and 12:00 pm (33.77%). A positive correlation was found between the time of sunrise, time of sunset and the mortality caused by myocardial infarction (p < 0,01). In the analysis of the number of daylight hours and the heart attack mortality we found a negative correlation (r = - 0.105, p < 0.05). No significant difference was found between sexes and different age-groups in heart attack mortality. Our data suggest, that the occurrence and the mortality of heart attack may be related to the time of sunrise and the number of daylight hours. © 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Yang C.,Behavior and Society | German D.,Behavior and Society | Webster D.,Policy and Management | Latkin C.,Behavior and Society
Journal of Urban Health

The purpose of this study was to examine experiencing violence as a predictor of subsequent drug relapse among a sample of former crack, cocaine, and heroin users in Baltimore, MD, USA. The sample consists of 228 former drug users in Baltimore who were recruited through street outreach. Mixed-effects models were used to examine experiencing violence as a predictor of drug relapse at follow-up after adjusting for clustering of responses among participants living in the same census block. Using longitudinal data, we found that experiencing violence in the past year predicted drug relapse at 2-year follow-up among former drug users. Results indicate experiencing violence is a determinant of drug use relapse and highlight the importance of addressing the fundamental issues of violence experienced in inner-city communities. Addressing the extent of recent violence among drug treatment participants, providing coping skills, and reducing community violence are strategies that may address the link between violence and drug relapse. © 2011 The New York Academy of Medicine. Source

Casciotti D.M.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Smith K.C.,Behavior and Society | Andon L.,Johns Hopkins Health System | Vernick J.,Policy and Management | And 2 more authors.
Journal of School Health

BACKGROUND: In 2007, legislation was proposed in 24 states and the District of Columbia for school-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine mandates, and mandates were enacted in Texas, Virginia, and the District of Columbia. Media coverage of these events was extensive, and media messages both reflected and contributed to controversy surrounding these legislative activities. Messages communicated through the media are an important influence on adolescent and parent understanding of school-based vaccine mandates. METHODS: We conducted structured text analysis of newspaper coverage, including quantitative analysis of 169 articles published in mandate jurisdictions from 2005 to 2009, and qualitative analysis of 63 articles from 2007. Our structured analysis identified topics, key stakeholders and sources, tone, and the presence of conflict. Qualitative thematic analysis identified key messages and issues. RESULTS: Media coverage was often incomplete, providing little context about cervical cancer or screening. Skepticism and autonomy concerns were common. Messages reflected conflict and distrust of government activities, which could negatively impact this and other youth-focused public health initiatives. CONCLUSIONS: If school health professionals are aware of the potential issues raised in media coverage of school-based health mandates, they will be more able to convey appropriate health education messages and promote informed decision-making by parents and students. © 2014, American School Health Association. Source

Boersma K.S.,Oregon State University | Bogan M.T.,Policy and Management | Henrichs B.A.,Oregon State University | Lytle D.A.,Oregon State University

Top predator losses affect a wide array of ecological processes, and there is growing evidence that top predators are disproportionately vulnerable to environmental changes. Despite increasing recognition of the fundamental role that top predators play in structuring communities and ecosystems, it remains challenging to predict the consequences of predator extinctions in highly variable environments. Both biotic and abiotic drivers determine community structure, and manipulative experiments are necessary to disentangle the effects of predator loss from other co-occurring environmental changes. To explore the consistency of top predator effects in ecological communities that experience high local environmental variability, we experimentally removed top predators from arid-land stream pool mesocosms in southeastern Arizona, USA, and measured natural background environmental conditions. We inoculated mesocosms with aquatic invertebrates from local streams, removed the top predator Abedus herberti (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae) from half of the mesocosms as a treatment, and measured community divergence at the end of the summer dry season. We repeated the experiment in two consecutive years, which represented two very different biotic and abiotic environments. We found that some of the effects of top predator removal were consistent despite significant differences in environmental conditions, community composition, and colonist sources between years. As in other studies, top predator removal did not affect overall species richness or abundance in either year, and we observed inconsistent effects on community and trophic structure. However, top predator removal consistently affected large-bodied species (those in the top 1% of the community body size distribution) in both years, increasing the abundance of mesopredators and decreasing the abundance of detritivores, even though the identity of these species varied between years. Our findings highlight the vulnerability of large taxa to top predator extirpations and suggest that the consistency of observed ecological patterns may be as important as their magnitude. © 2014 The Authors. Source

Martinez K.A.,Policy and Management | Martinez K.A.,North Campus Research Complex | Bone L.,Behavior and Society | Johnson L.,Park West Health Systems | And 2 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention

Background: Previous research has shown colorectal cancer (CRC) screening disparities by gender. Little research has focused primarily on gender differences among older Black individuals, and reasons for existing gender differences remain poorly understood. Methods: Weused baseline data from the Cancer Prevention and Treatment Demonstration Screening Trial. Participants were recruited from November 2006 to March 2010. In-person interviews were used to assess selfreported CRC screening behavior. Up-to-date CRC screening was defined as self-reported colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy in the past 10 years or fecal occult blood testing in the past year. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association between gender and self-reported screening, adjusting for covariates. The final model was stratified by gender to examine factors differentially associated with screening outcomes for males and females. Results: The final sample consisted of 1,552 female and 586 male Black Medicare beneficiaries in Baltimore, Maryland. Males were significantly less likely than females to report being up-to-date with screening (77.5% vs. 81.6%, P = 0.030), and this difference was significant in the fully adjusted model (OR: 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.99). The association between having a usual source of care and receipt of cancer screening was stronger among males compared with females. Conclusions: Although observed differences in CRC screening were small, several factors suggest that gender-specific approaches may be used to promote screening adherence among Black Medicare beneficiaries. Impact: Given disproportionate CRC mortality between White and Black Medicare beneficiaries, genderspecific interventions aimed at increasing CRC screening may be warranted among older Black patients. © 2013 American Association for Cancer Research. Source

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