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Segura E.,National Institute Of Parasitology Dr M Fatala Chaben | McLean R.K.D.,Policy | McLean R.K.D.,Canadian Institutes of Health Research
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Objective: In this study, Argentine health researchers were surveyed regarding their perceptions of facilitators and barriers to evidence-based policymaking in Argentina, as well as their publication activities, and research environment satisfaction. Methods: A self-administered online survey was sent to health researchers in Argentina. The survey questions were based on a preceding qualitative study of Argentine health researchers, as well as the scientific literature. Results: Of the 647 researchers that were reached, 226 accessed the survey, for a response rate of 34.9%. Over 80% of researchers surveyed had never been involved in or contributed to decisionmaking, while over 90% of researchers indicated they would like to be involved in the decision-making process. Decision-maker self-interest was perceived to be the driving factor in the development of health and healthcare policies. Research conducted by a research leader was seen to be the most influential factor in influencing health policy, followed by policy relevance of the research. With respect to their occupational environment, researchers rated highest and most favourably the opportunities available to present, discuss and publish research results and their ability to further their education and training. Argentine researchers surveyed demonstrated a strong interest and willingness to contribute their work and expertise to inform Argentine health policy development. Conclusion: Despite Argentina's long scientific tradition, there are relatively few institutionalized linkages between health research results and health policymaking. Based on the results of this study, the disconnect between political decision-making and the health research system, coupled with fewer opportunities for formalized or informal researcher/decision-maker interaction, contribute to the challenges in evidence informing health policymaking in Argentina. Improving personal contact and the building of relationships between researchers and policymakers in Argentina will require taking into account researcher perceptions of policymakers, as highlighted in this study. © 2015 Corluka et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Farnworth C.R.,Pandia Consulting | Kantor P.,CIMMYT | Kruijssen F.,Policy | Longley C.,WorldFish | Colverson K.E.,University of Florida
International Journal of Agricultural Resources, Governance and Ecology | Year: 2015

It is widely recognised that women are significant actors in crop, livestock, pastoralist and fish systems. However, little is known about agricultural development projects which deliberately work towards gender equity in livestock and fish value chains. Research insights into gender roles and responsibilities along such chains on how gender relations at household and community level may affect women and men's access to resources for livestock production, and their relative benefits from value chain development, are often weakly integrated into development planning and practice. In order to redress the balance, a number of research and development partners are working to develop analytic frameworks and implementation guidelines to facilitate gender equity in livestock and fish value chains. This paper examines recent and ongoing work to develop tools for gender analyses in value chains and describes how they are being fed into project design. Case studies are taken from Zambia, Kenya and Egypt. Copyright © 2015 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


Chopra M.,Health Section | Sharkey A.,Health Section | Dalmiya N.,Nutrition Section | Anthony D.,Policy | And 2 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2012

Implementation of innovative strategies to improve coverage of evidence-based interventions, especially in the most marginalised populations, is a key focus of policy makers and planners aiming to improve child survival, health, and nutrition. We present a three-step approach to improvement of the effective coverage of essential interventions. First, we identify four different intervention delivery channels - ie, clinical or curative, outreach, community-based preventive or promotional, and legislative or mass media. Second, we classify which interventions' deliveries can be improved or changed within their channel or by switching to another channel. Finally, we do a meta-review of both published and unpublished reviews to examine the evidence for a range of strategies designed to overcome supply and demand bottlenecks to effective coverage of interventions that improve child survival, health, and nutrition. Although knowledge gaps exist, several strategies show promise for improving coverage of effective interventions - and, in some cases, health outcomes in children - including expanded roles for lay health workers, task shifting, reduction of financial barriers, increases in human-resource availability and geographical access, and use of the private sector. Policy makers and planners should be informed of this evidence as they choose strategies in which to invest their scarce resources.


Brinkman H.-J.,Policy | De Pee S.,Policy | De Pee S.,Tufts University | Sanogo I.,World Food Programme | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2010

A global economic and financial crisis is engulfing the developing world, coming on top of high food and fuel prices. This paper assesses the impact of the crises on food consumption, nutrition, and health. Several methods were applied, including risk analysis using the cost of the food basket, assessment surveys, simulations, regression analysis using a food consumption score (FCS), reflecting diet frequency and diversity, and a review of the impact of such dietary changes on nutritional status and health. The cost of the food basket increased in several countries, forcing households to reduce quality and quantity of food consumed. The FCS, which is a measure of diet diversity, is negatively correlated with food prices. Simulations show that energy consumption declined during 2006-2010 in nearly all developing regions, resulting potentially in an additional 457 million people (of 4.5 billion) at risk of being hungry and many more unable to afford the dietary quality required to perform, develop, and grow well. As a result of the crises, large numbers of vulnerable households have reduced the quality and quantity of foods they consume and are at risk of increased malnutrition. Population groups most affected are those with the highest requirements, including young children, pregnant and lactating women, and the chronically ill (particularly people with HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis). Because undernutrition during the first 2 y of life has life-long consequences, even short-term price rises will have long-term effects. Thus, measures to mitigate the impact of the crises are urgently required. © 2010 American Society for Nutrition.


Godazgar V.,Policy | Haddadi L.,IT
2013 7th Intenational Conference on e-Commerce in Developing Countries: With Focus on e-Security, ECDC 2013 | Year: 2013

This article focuses on the significance of gold and silver as valuable metals which have been in use since ancient times as precious metals and money for bartering and other commercial purposes. The role of gold in backing up paper money as currency is reviewed and discussed to arrive at the considerable effect of gold in evaluating the bank notes to serve as currency. However, major part of the notes has been printed out without sufficient gold support which has consequently resulted in various financial turmoil and problems including unchecked inflation and economic crises. This study suggests Digital Gold Currency (DGC) as one solution for modern market which runs on e-commerce and online trades and transactions. The analysis and investigations of the statuses of gold and fiat money substantiates the application of gold and DGC as a way out of the financial crises and a secure insurance against most potential financial problems. © 2013 IEEE.


Raleigh V.S.,Policy | Frosini F.,Policy | Sizmur S.,Picker Institute Europe | Graham C.,Picker Institute Europe
BMJ Quality and Safety | Year: 2012

Introduction: Data were used from inpatient, outpatient and accident and emergency surveys in acute trusts in England to examine consistency in patient-reported experience across services, and factors associated with systematic variations in performance. Methods: Standardised mean scores for six domains of patient experience were constructed for each survey for 145 non-specialist acute trusts. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to investigate whether and how trust performance clusters. Multilevel regression analysis was used to determine trust characteristics associated with performance. Results: Cluster analysis identified three groups: trusts that performed consistently above (30 trusts) or below (six trusts) average, and those with mixed performance. All the poor performing trusts were in London, none were foundation trusts or teaching hospitals, and they had the highest mean deprivation score and the lowest proportion of white inpatients and response rates. Foundation and teaching status, and the proportion of white inpatients, were positively associated with performance; deprivation and response rates showed less consistent positive associations. No regional effects were apparent after adjusting for independent variables. Conclusion: The results have significant implications for quality improvement in the NHS. The finding that some NHS providers consistently perform better than others suggests that there are system-wide determinants of patient experience and the potential for learning from innovators. However, there is room for improvement overall. Given the large samples of these surveys, the messages could also have relevance for healthcare systems elsewhere.


Pocklington D.,Policy
Environmental Law and Management | Year: 2013

The recent protests associated with hydraulic fracturing at Balcombe, the HS2 link and badger culling have all involved local groups, charities, NGOs and church organizations mounting action against various activities possibly damaging to the environment that have had strong governmental and prime ministerial support. Given that the Bill was sneaked in the day before the summer recess, and scheduled for a hurried passage through Parliament, it is unsurprising that it aroused suspicion and anger among those potentially affected, some of whom suggested that this undue haste was triggered by a desire to minimize dissent against the government in the 12 months preceding the next election. The International Energy Agency (lEA) has indicated that CCS has the potential of reducing global carbon dioxide emissions by 19 per cent, and that combating climate change could cost 70 per cent more without CCS.


Engel-Yan J.,Policy | Hollingworth B.,IBI Group
ITE Journal (Institute of Transportation Engineers) | Year: 2013

The article considers how municipalities can develop parking requirements that address evolving place of worship trends, are more transparent and less likely to lead to confusion and conflict, and support broader policy directions regarding place of worship development. Developing parking policy, including minimum parking requirements, for places of worship is becoming increasingly complex. Over the past several decades, there has been significant growth in new religious groups combined with trends toward larger places of worship that have a range of uses and serve more dispersed congregations. Places of worship provide valuable services to communities. Many are key community centers, and offer important cultural, social, and economic community supports. They often fill gaps where governments are unable to provide culturally specific services, and aid co-ethnic immigrants to adapt to their new conditions. For cities, these institutions can provide architectural assets, community facilities, heritage sites, and tourist destinations.


Data were used from inpatient, outpatient and accident and emergency surveys in acute trusts in England to examine consistency in patient-reported experience across services, and factors associated with systematic variations in performance.Standardised mean scores for six domains of patient experience were constructed for each survey for 145 non-specialist acute trusts. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to investigate whether and how trust performance clusters. Multilevel regression analysis was used to determine trust characteristics associated with performance.Cluster analysis identified three groups: trusts that performed consistently above (30 trusts) or below (six trusts) average, and those with mixed performance. All the poor performing trusts were in London, none were foundation trusts or teaching hospitals, and they had the highest mean deprivation score and the lowest proportion of white inpatients and response rates. Foundation and teaching status, and the proportion of white inpatients, were positively associated with performance; deprivation and response rates showed less consistent positive associations. No regional effects were apparent after adjusting for independent variables.The results have significant implications for quality improvement in the NHS. The finding that some NHS providers consistently perform better than others suggests that there are system-wide determinants of patient experience and the potential for learning from innovators. However, there is room for improvement overall. Given the large samples of these surveys, the messages could also have relevance for healthcare systems elsewhere.

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