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Vallasciani S.,Pediatric Urology Unit | Berrettini A.,Pediatric Urology Unit | Nanni L.,Policlinico Gemelli | Manzoni G.,Pediatric Urology Unit | Marrocco G.,Azienda Ospedaliera San Camillo Forlanini
Journal of Pediatric Urology | Year: 2013

Introduction: Acquired megalourethra (AMU) after repair of proximal hypospadias can be a serious complication. An observational retrospective study of its incidence among different types of repair was performed. Materials and methods: Clinical charts of patients operated on for proximal hypospadias were reviewed. Inclusion criteria: all primary hypospadias operated in 1991-2004, with the meatus positioned in proximal penile, scrotal or perineal position. Results: Of 770 hypospadias cases treated, 130 (16%) were proximal. Seventy-two patients (55%) were treated using preputial flaps: 36 with a tubularized preputial island flap (TIF) and 36 an onlay island flap (OIF). Fifty-eight patients (45%) underwent staged repairs: Belt-Fuquà (BF) in 18 and Bracka procedure in 40 cases. After a mean follow up of 16 years (range 6-19) the overall incidence of complications for each technique was: TIF 36%; OIF 33%; BF 25%; two-stage Bracka 7.5%. The most common complication encountered was neo-urethral fistula. AMU occurred in only 5 cases, none with associated distal urethral stenosis, all in the TIF and OIF groups, and all successfully treated by reduction re-do urethroplasty. Conclusion: A very small number of the patients operated using preputial island flaps techniques developed AMU. None of the staged repairs developed AMU, and this is the preferred choice in proximal hypospadias when the urethral plate requires division and/or substitution. All cases of AMU resolved after urethral tapering. © 2012 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Meco D.,Catholic University | Servidei T.,Catholic University | Zannoni G.F.,Policlinico Gemelli | Martinelli E.,Catholic University | And 3 more authors.
Translational Oncology | Year: 2010

Medulloblastoma is the most frequent malignant pediatric brain tumor with a dismal prognosis in 30% of cases. We examined the activity of AEE788, a dual inhibitor of human epidermal receptor (HER) 1/2 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) 1/2, in medulloblastoma preclinical models. Established lines (Daoy and D283), chemoresistant (DaoyPt), and ectopically HER2-overexpressing (DaoyHER2) cells expressed diverse levels of total and activated AEE788 target receptors. In vitro, AEE788 inhibited cell proliferation (IC50 from 1.7 to 3.8 μM) and prevented epidermal growth factor- and neuregulin-induced HER1, HER2, and HER3 activation. Inhibition of Akt paralleled that of HER receptors. In vivo, AEE788 growth inhibited Daoy, DaoyPt, and DaoyHER2 xenografts by 51%, 45%, and 72%, respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis of mock- and HER2-transfected xenografts revealed that the latter showed, along with high HER2 expression, high VEGFR2 staining in tumor and endothelial cells and increased expression of the endothelial marker CD31. AEE788 reduced the activation of target receptors and angiogenesis. In 21 primary medulloblastoma, HER2 expression significantly correlated (P <. 01) with VEGFR2 r = 0.56) and VEGF (r = 0.61). In conclusion, AEE788 shows similar growth-suppressive activities in chemosensitive and chemoresistant medulloblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Ectopic HER2 overexpression sensitizes cells to AEE788 in vivo, but not in vitro, possibly through host-mediated processes. Together with the experimental data, the finding that HER2 positively correlates with VEGFR2 and VEGF in human medulloblastoma specimens indicates HER2-overexpressing medulloblastoma as the subset that most likely might benefit from AEE788 treatment. © 2010 Neoplasia Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

Rubboli A.,Laboratorio Of Cardiologia Interventistica | Sciahbasi A.,Policlinico Casilino | Briguori C.,Clinica Mediterranea | Saia F.,Ospedale Universitario | And 17 more authors.
Journal of Invasive Cardiology | Year: 2013

The in-hospital management of patients on warfarin undergoing coronary stent implantation (PCI-S) is variable, and the in-hospital outcome incompletely defined. To determine the adherence to the current recommendations, and the incidence of adverse events, we carried out the prospective, multicenter, observational WARfarin and coronary STENTing (WAR-STENT) registry (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00722319). All consecutive patients on warfarin undergoing PCI-S at 37 Italian centers were enrolled and followed for 12 months. Outcome measures were: major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), including cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, need for urgent revascularization, stroke, and venous thromboembolism, and major and minor bleeding. In this paper, we report the in-hospital findings. Out of the 411 patients enrolled, 92% were at non-low (ie, moderate or high) thromboembolic risk. The radial approach and bare-metal stents were used in 61% and 60% of cases, respectively. Drug-eluting stents were essentially reserved to patients with diabetes, which in turn, significantly predicted the implantation of drug-eluting stents (odds ratio [OR], 2.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29-3.17; P≤.002). The in-hospital MACE and major bleeding rates were 2.7% and 2.1%, respectively. At discharge, triple therapy (TT) of warfarin, aspirin, and clopidogrel was prescribed to 76% of patients. Prescription of TT was significantly more frequent in the non-low thromboembolic risk group. Non-low thromboembolic risk, in turn, was a significant predictor of TT prescription (OR, 11.2; 95% CI, 4.83-26.3; P<.0001). In conclusion, real-world warfarin patients undergoing PCI-S are largely managed according to the current recommendations. As a consequence, the risk of in-hospital MACE and major bleedings appears limited and acceptable.

Ferrari G.,Ospedale San Giovanni Bosco | Milan A.,University of Turin | Groff P.,Policlinico S. Orsola Malpighi | Pagnozzi F.,Ospedale San Giovanni Bosco | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Emergency Medicine | Year: 2010

Background: Both non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) and non-invasive pressure support ventilation (nPSV) have been shown to be effective treatment for acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE). In patients with severe ACPE who are treated with standard medical treatment, the baseline intubation rate is approximately 24%. Study Objective: This study was conducted to compare the endotracheal intubation (ETI) rate using two techniques, nCPAP vs. nPSV. In addition, mortality rate, improvement in gas exchange, duration of ventilation, and hospital length of stay were also assessed. Methods: This prospective, multi-center, randomized study enrolled 80 patients with ACPE who were randomized to receive nCPAP or nPSV (40 patients in each group) via an oronasal mask. Inclusion criteria were severe dyspnea, respiratory rate > 30 breaths/min, use of respiratory accessory muscles, or PaO2/FiO 2 < 200. Results: ETI was required in 0 (0%) and in 3 (7.5%) patients in the nCPAP group and in the nPSV group, respectively (p = 0.241). No significant difference was observed in in-hospital mortality: 2 (5%) vs. 7 (17.5%) in nCPAP and nPSV groups, respectively (p = 0.154). No difference in hospital length of stay was observed between the two groups, nor was there a difference observed in duration of ventilation, despite a trend for reduced time with nPSV vs. nCPAP (5.91 ± 4.01 vs. 8.46 ± 7.14 h, respectively, p = 0.052). Both nCPAP and nPSV were effective in improving gas exchange, including in the subgroup of hypercapnic patients. Conclusions: Both methods are effective treatment for patients with ACPE. Non-invasive CPAP should be considered as the first line of treatment because it is easier to use and less expensive than non-invasive PSV. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Servidei T.,Catholic University of Rome | Meco D.,Catholic University of Rome | Trivieri N.,StemGen SpA | Patriarca V.,Catholic University of Rome | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2012

Some lines of evidence suggest that tumors, including ependymoma, might arise from a subpopulation of cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSCs), with self-renewal and tumor-initiation properties. Given the strict dependence of CSCs on epidermal growth factor (EGF) through EGF receptor (EGFR), we investigated the effects of EGFR inhibitors in ependymoma-stem cells (SCs) in vitro and in orthotopic mouse models. We established two ependymoma-SC lines from two recurrent pediatric ependymoma. Both lines expressed markers of radial glia-the candidate SCs of ependymoma-and showed renewal ability, multipotency, and tumorigenicity after orthotopic implantation, despite markedly different expression of CD133 (94 vs. 6%). High phosphorylated-EGFR/EGFR ratio was detected, which decreased after differentiation. EGFR inhibitors (gefitinib and AEE788) reduced clonogenicity, proliferation and survival of ependymoma-SC lines dose-dependently, and blocked EGF-induced activation of EGFR, Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Overall, AEE788 was more effective than gefitinib. EGFR blockade as well as differentiation strongly reduced CD133 expression. However, ex vivo treatment with AEE788 did not impair orthotopic tumor engraftment, whereas ex vivo differentiation did, suggesting that CD133 does not absolutely segregate for tumorigenicity in ependymoma-SCs. Orally administered AEE788 prolonged survival of mice bearing ependymoma-SC-driven orthotopic xenografts from 56 to 63 days, close to statistical significance (log-rank p = 0.06). Our study describes for the first time EGFR signaling in ependymoma-SCs and the effects of EGFR blockade in complementary in vitro and in vivo systems. The experimental models we developed can be used to further investigate the activity of EGFR inhibitors or other antineoplastic agents in this tumor. © 2011 UICC.

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