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Wright C.I.,Global Group of Companies | Picot E.,Pole Etudes Locomotive et TGV Optimisation de la Maintenance TGV Chez SNCF
Heat Transfer Engineering | Year: 2016

Case Studies Editor's Note: We at the Journal of Heat Transfer Engineering (HTE) are happy to announce the introduction of a new section entitled "Case Studies." The first case study was published in vol. 37(3-4). This is the second case study in the series. We are asking authors to contribute their practical experiences in the form of real-world case studies. The goal is to disseminate practical information especially to young engineers who are stepping into the real world. The format of such articles will be a full-length paper or a short brief. It does not have to entail a typical research-type paper format with details about measurement accuracies, references, and so on. The article could have a brief introduction with the problem description, remedy, lessons learned, and recommendations. The review process will be simple and less involved than with typical research papers. The goal is not to discredit a person or a company but to share experiences. We all make mistakes; however, we also find solutions, and it is the solution part that is rewarding and that should be shared for the betterment of the society.Zahid AyubHTE Case Studies Editor Copyright © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Wright C.I.,Global Group | Bembridge T.,Kinetic Partners | Picot E.,Pole Etudes Locomotive et TGV Optimisation de la Maintenance TGV Chez SNCF | Premel J.,Pole Etudes Locomotive et TGV Optimisation de la Maintenance TGV Chez SNCF
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2015

It is reported that there are some 4000 companies operating high temperature thermal fluid systems in the UK and Ireland. This excludes steam or water based systems. The heat transfer fluids (HTFs) used in food processing are highly refined mineral HTFs that are non-toxic, non-irritating and lack an odour. If an HTF has been certified for use in food processing it carries an HT-1 certificate. HTFs suitable for use in food processing are commonly referred to as 'non-fouling' which means as they thermally degrade they produce small carbon particles that are suspended in the HTF. Moreover, the carbon formations are less sticky and this reduces the extent of adhesion to the internal surfaces of an HTF system. The current paper analysed the test reports from 1223 HTF systems and showed that, on average, the carbon residue for food grade HTF was lower than non-food grade HTF. This clearly demonstrates what the non-fouling nature of a food grade HTF. This paper then explored the regulatory, legal and environmental landscape for food grade HTFs. In this area of manufacturing, it is critical that the HTFs used are suitable for incidental contact with food. Other measures put consumer safety at the heart of all operations (i.e., internal company procedures such as hazard analysis and critical control points [HACCP]) and that food is safe for consumer consumption (e.g., external controls such as auditing manufacturers to ensure good quality and distribution practice). The authors introduce the idea that safety could be further enhanced through independent HTF sampling and chemical analysis of HTFs to ensure they are food grade and should be done without any interruption to a manufacturer's production. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

Wright C.I.,Global Group | Picot E.,Pole Etudes Locomotive et TGV Optimisation de la Maintenance TGV Chez SNCF | Bembridge T.,Kinetic Partners
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2015

A large number of industrial processes require the efficient transfer of heat energy. Heat transfer fluids (HTFs) are imperative in such processes. The efficient transfer of heat energy is affected by system fouling and past studies have mainly focused on the fouling of heat exchangers but not the overall system. In normal operations HTFs are routinely sampled and chemically analysed to get an insight into the condition of both the HTF and the heat transfer system. The aim of routine maintenance programmes is to sustain normal operation and slow the rate of thermal degradation. HTF analysis is used to assess the chemical by-products of thermal degradation and oxidation. It is also used to detect system wear particles, water and contamination. Manufacturers often recommend that an HTF is analysed at least once per year. To date, however, it is unclear if this is the optimal sampling frequency. The current study investigated if sampling frequency had any bearing on the overall condition of mineral-based HTFs. Results revealed that parameters of HTF condition were inversely related to sampling frequency with increases in sampling frequency being correlated with improvements in overall HTF condition. This implies that frequent sampling works to improve the health of mineral-based HTFs. The implication being that a mineral HTF should be assessed as frequently as possible. Furthermore, when systems are sampled regularly (i.e., ≥1 per year), total acid number and closed flash temperature need to be monitored closely as these were most frequently out of specification when sampled between once per year and four times per year. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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