Shanghai, China

The Polar Research Institute of China is the main Chinese research institute for the study of the Earth's polar regions. It is based in Shanghai, China.The Institute manages four polar research stations , as well as the icebreaking research vessel Xuě Lóng. Wikipedia.

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Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra-PP | Phase: INFRA-2010-2.2.3 | Award Amount: 6.68M | Year: 2010

Environmental change and climate change in particular, are expected to be most pronounced in the polar regions. For this reason, a multi-disciplinary research infrastructure covering all important elements of the coupled Earth System in the Arctic is a very valuable tool to quantify the ongoing global change and to verify the capability of Earth System models to predict future changes. The proposed EFRI project Svalbard Integrated Arctic Earth Observing System (SIOS) is intended to take this role. The main goal of the SIOS Preparatory Phase (SIOS-PP) project is to define, work out and decide on the formal framework needed to establish and operate the geographically distributed and thematically composed multi-national research infrastructure with a node function in different aspects, that SIOS will manifest. This covers, on one side, aspects common for all ESFRI initiatives, such as legal status, governance structure, financial strategy, a data management and utilization plan, and an (on- and offshore) logistics plan. In addition, SIOS-PP will address topics that are special for this infrastructure: a dedicated remote sensing strategy, an internal scientific and observational, as well as an international integration and cooperation plan, which will link SIOS to regional European Arctic and pan-Arctic scientific infrastructure networks. The SIOS-PP project will be carried out by a consortium of 27 partners from 14 countries including 4 non-EU and non-associated countries; three of the partners are national funding agencies. In addition, 19 associated partners with infrastructure or strong scientific interests on Svalbard will cooperate during the preparatory phase. The project has a duration of 3 years.

Gardner C.S.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Huang W.,Polar Research Institute of China
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres | Year: 2016

We analyze year-round Fe lidar observations made in Antarctica at Rothera (67.7°S), South Pole (90°S), and McMurdo (77.8°S). During midsummer, when the mesopause region is continuously sunlit, the Fe density between 84 and 88 km is independent of temperature, because photolysis of FeOH is so fast that virtually all of the FeOH is converted to Fe via this path, rather than via the temperature-dependent FeOH + H reaction. The extremely low summertime densities at Rothera and South Pole are caused primarily by meridional transport northward out of the polar cap and, to a lesser extent, by uptake of Fe species on polar mesospheric cloud (PMC) ice particles. In midwinter, both meridional transport and temperature dominate Fe variations. The temperature sensitivity of Fe during winter is 2.2%/K at Rothera and 3.0%/K at South Pole. The annual mean Fe abundance at McMurdo is more than 50% larger than that observed at any other lidar site in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. McMurdo is located at the magnetic poleward edge of the auroral oval, just north of the deep polar cap. We hypothesize that southward transport of Fe+ out of the auroral oval in winter and northward transport of Fe+ out of the deep polar cap and auroral zone in summer, to McMurdo where it is neutralized, could be the source of the enhanced Fe. Theoretical calculations show that Fe+ densities of ~13,000 cm−3 in midwinter and ~1600 cm−3 in midsummer, between 84 and 88 km, are required to account for the high Fe densities at McMurdo. ©2016. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

News Article | November 30, 2016

As the short Antarctic spring ends and long summer days approach, geo­scientists are flocking to the frozen continent to start a new kind of exploration. In December, the first drill designed to search for a scientifically useful sample of ice that is at least 1.5 million years old will begin its work. It is part of a broader effort to locate the best place to extract a core containing Earth’s oldest ice, which would help to reveal how climate has shaped the planet’s past and how to predict future fluctuations. “This exciting field season should bring us a large step nearer to deciding where to drill the oldest-ice core,” says Olaf Eisen, a glaciologist at the Alfred Wegener Institute of Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven, Germany, who coordinates an exploration team funded by the European Union. More than a decade ago, the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) drilled the oldest existing core, which contains 800,000-year-old ice, from an ice dome in East Antarctica known as Dome C. The core reaches only as far back as the latter part of the Pleistocene epoch, when Earth began cycling between warm and cold periods every 100,000 years. Before 1 million years ago, the cycle occurred every 40,000 years (L. E. Lisiecki and M. E. Raymo Paleoceanography 20, PA1003; 2005), so scientists want an ice core that is twice as old as EPICA to better understand this transition. Digging such a core would cost about US$50 million and take several years, so researchers want to be sure that the location is optimal — with ice that is sufficiently deep but not melted at the bottom by geothermal activity. “It’s absolutely crucial to thoroughly investigate all options,” says Eisen. Enter a new breed of drill, designed to do fast, cheap reconnaissance instead of extracting a single, intact ice core, as previous deep drills have done. One promising location, ‘little Dome C’, lies just 40 kilometres away from the EPICA site — and is where the £500,000 (US$620,000) Rapid Access Isotope Drill (RAID) will start boring this month, led by climate scientist Robert Mulvaney of the British Antarctic Survey in Cambridge, UK. A narrow drill, RAID will excavate to 600 metres in about 7 days — compared with 5 years for a 3.4-kilometre core such as EPICA’s. And rather than extract a core, RAID will measure the ice’s temperature and collect chips of ice. Scientists will then comb these for clues from isotopes as to the age and temperature of the ice at the bottom of the sheet. A more expensive reconnaissance instrument, which will do its first drilling tests this season at Dome C, should be ready to take a deeper look next year. Led by glaciologist Jérôme Chappellaz of Joseph Fourier University in Grenoble, France, the €3.2-million (US$3.4-million) SUBGLACIOR probe, which is about the same width as RAID, can penetrate the more than 3-kilometre-thick ice sheet in a single season. Both the UK and French drilling projects are funded as part of the EU collaboration. But also this season, a US team led by climatologist Jeffrey Severinghaus of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, California, and John Goodge of the University of Minnesota, Duluth, will test the $10.5-million Rapid Access Ice Drill (also abbreviated RAID) at Minna Bluff, near the US McMurdo Station on Ross Island. Producing a hole of about 8 centimetres — similar to the boreholes of the other drills — it is the only rapid drill that can extract rocks from the bottom of a core. Next Antarctic summer, the team will begin its hunt for the site of a 1.5-million-year-old core. Dome C is one option for its first excavation. Another is the relatively unexplored Dome F in Antarctica’s Queen Maud Land, which ground-based radar suggests is a promising candidate (see ‘Ice search’). In January, a German team will run reconnaissance flights there. Funded by the same European grant as the UK RAID and SUBGLACIOR drills, this radar survey will give a more comprehensive view of the ice thickness. Severinghaus says that his team will watch for the data when deciding where to point the US RAID. Both the US and European teams are working under an umbrella group. The International Partnerships in Ice Core Sciences (IPICS) aims to identify a suitable site to drill a core representing Antarctica’s oldest ice in the next two years. That drilling could start by the end of 2020, says Eisen. But how the international teams would work together on a joint project, or share funding, is unclear. There’s a possibility that a record-breaking ancient core could show up sooner. For several years, scientists at the Polar Research Institute of China in Shanghai, who are also members of IPICS, have been probing the ice sheet that covers Dome A, a plateau close to the centre of the Antarctic continent. Using a conventional corer rather than a rapid exploratory drill, they are working on obtaining a deep, intact ice core from the region, says Eisen — and it is possible that it could stretch back to 1.5 million years. Such a surprise success would increase pressure on teams from other nations to produce their own record, he says. Multiple cores would benefit science. “We would carry on with our project,” says Eisen. The IPICS effort would ideally excavate multiple 1.5-million-year-old cores in any case. “You cannot trust a single core,” says Severinghaus. “We absolutely need different records from different thermal regimes.”

Chen Y.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Chen Y.,Polar Research Institute of China | Liu L.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Wan W.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics
Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics | Year: 2012

This study investigates the correlations between SOHO/Solar EUV Monitor 26-34 nm EUV and the F10.7 and Mg II proxies on solar cycle (long-term) and solar rotation (short-term) timescales. The long-term components of EUV and proxies are well correlated, and the general relation between them can be captured by the 81 day averaged EUV and proxies. Short-term EUV-proxy correlation is poorer and variable during the solar cycle. The slopes of short-term EUV against proxies vary from solar rotation to solar rotation, and they are generally lower than those of long-term EUV against proxies. EUV and proxies show discrepant evolutions during the episode of major active regions, which should be a primary reason for the poorer short-term EUV-proxy correlation and the variable short-term EUV-proxy slope. Mg II is a better proxy than F10.7 for 26-34 nm EUV. Its superiority mainly comes from better indications for short-term EUV. Global electron content (GEC) significantly responds to the long-term and short-term variations of EUV. Accordingly, the correlations between short-term GEC and proxies are poorer, and they are obviously lower than those between short-term EUV and proxies owing to ionospheric day-to-day variability. Short-term GEC-proxy slopes are also lower than the long-term slopes. F10.7 and Mg II are improved by combining the daily and 81 day averaged components of them with weighted factors that are designed to decrease the difference between long-term and short-term EUV-proxy slopes. The improved proxies can effectively upgrade the indications of proxies for EUV though they cannot solve the variability of short-term EUV-proxy slope. This method is also used to improve proxies for better indicating GEC, but the improved proxies for GEC differ from those for 26-34 nm EUV.

Krienitz L.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries | Bock C.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries | Luo W.,Polar Research Institute of China | Proschold T.,Scottish Association for Marine Science
Journal of Phycology | Year: 2010

The green algal Dictyosphaerium morphotype is characterized by spherical or oval cells connected by gelatinized strands to microscopic colonies, which are covered by prominent mucilaginous envelopes. Combined SSU and ITS rRNA gene sequence analyses revealed that this morphotype evolved independently both in the Chlorella and Parachlorella clades of the Chlorellaceae. It was shown that strains exhibiting the morphology of the type species Dictyosphaerium ehrenbergianum Nägeli established a sister lineage to Parachlorella. The strain D. ehrenbergianum CCAP 222/1A was designated as an authentic strain for establishing the epitype of the genus Dictyosphaerium. The comparison of this strain with the authentic strain of Parachlorella beijerinckii Krienitz, E. Hegewald, Hepperle, V. Huss, T. Rohr et M. Wolf (SAG 2046) showed considerable differences in the secondary structure of the ITS region. Within the whole ITS-1 and ITS-2 region, 27 compensatory base changes (CBCs) were recognized. In the conserved Helix III of the ITS-2, five CBCs/HemiCBCs were detected. This is a conclusive argument for separation of these two species. The clear definition of Dictyosphaerium is intended to be the necessary starting point of taxonomic reevaluation of Dictyosphaerium-like algae within different evolutionary lineages of the Chlorellaceae. © 2010 Phycological Society of America.

Yang Z.W.,Polar Research Institute of China | Yang Z.W.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Lembege B.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Lu Q.M.,Hefei University of Technology
Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics | Year: 2012

Both hybrid/full particle simulations and recent experimental results have clearly evidenced that the front of a supercritical quasi-perpendicular shock can be rippled. Recent two-dimensional simulations have focused on two different types of shock front rippling: (1) one characterized by a small spatial scale along the front is supported by lower hybrid wave activity, (2) the other characterized by a large spatial scale along the front is supported by the emission of large amplitude nonlinear whistler waves. These two rippled shock fronts are self-consistently observed when the static magnetic field is perpendicular to (so called B0-OUT case) or within (so called B0-IN case) the simulation plane, respectively. On the other hand, several studies have been made on the reflection and energization of incoming ions with a shock but most have been restricted to a one dimensional shock profile only (no rippling effects). Herein, two-dimensional test particle simulations based on strictly perpendicular shock profiles chosen at a fixed time in twodimensional Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, are performed in order to investigate the impact of the shock front ripples on incident ion (H+) dynamics. The acceleration mechanisms and energy spectra of the test-ions (described by shell distributions with different initial kinetic energy) interacting with a rippled shock front are analyzed in detail. Both B0-OUT and B0-IN cases are considered separately; in each case, y-averaged (front rippling excluded) and non-averaged (front rippling included) profiles will be analyzed. Present results show that: (1) the incident ions suffer both shock drift acceleration (SDA) and shock surfing acceleration (SSA) mechanisms. Moreover, a striking feature is that SSA ions not only are identified at the ramp but also within the foot which confirms previous 1-D simulation results; (2) the percentage of SSA ions increases with initial kinetic energy, a feature which persists well with a rippled shock front; (3) furthermore, the ripples increase the porosity of the shock front, and more directly transmitted (DT) ions are produced; these strongly affect the relative percentage of the different identified classes of ions (SSA, SDA and DT ions), their average kinetic energy and their relative contribution to the resulting downstream energy spectra; (4) one key impact of the ripples is a strong diffusion of ions (in particular through the frontiers of their injection angle domains and in phase space which are blurred out) which leads to a mixing of the different ion classes. This diffusion increases with the size of the spatial scale of the front ripples; (5) through this diffusion, an ion belonging to a given category (SSA, SDA, or DT) in y-averaged case changes class in non-averaged case without one-to-one correspondence. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Liu Y.H.,Polar Research Institute of China | Liu Y.H.,University of Newcastle | Fraser B.J.,University of Newcastle | Menk F.W.,University of Newcastle
Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics | Year: 2013

We analyze a long-duration electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave event seen in the inner magnetosphere in order to understand the propagation characteristics of these waves in the vicinity of the plasmapause. The study takes advantage of the south to north orbit of the four-satellite Cluster constellation as it passed through perigee at L ~ 4.2 at ~08 magnetic local time on 2 November 2001. Cluster traversed from a low-density magnetosphere (<20 cm-3) through a gradual plasmapause into a high-density plasmasphere (~80 cm-3) where the waves were seen over about 50 min and ceased on exiting the plasmapause in the Northern Hemisphere. The waves were observed over 1.8-3.5 Hz, above the local helium cyclotron frequency, between magnetic latitudes ±18°, and confined to a radial source region size estimated at 0.77 RE. Wave polarization appeared to be associated with plasma density, with left hand in the equatorial region, right hand at higher latitudes nearer the plasmapause, and a mixture between. Wave normal angles were typically <60°, and Poynting flux measurements show that wave energy was predominantly directed along the geomagnetic field toward high latitudes in both hemispheres. These results suggest that the plasma density and its gradient play a significant role in confining the wave source region and affecting the wave properties, which will help understand wave generation and propagation mechanisms in the magnetosphere plasma environment. Key Points The EMIC waves are confined within the Plasmapause.The EMIC wave polarization is highly associated with the plasma density.The EMIC wave propagation also highly depends on the plasma density. ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Liu Y.H.,University of Newcastle | Liu Y.H.,Polar Research Institute of China | Fraser B.J.,University of Newcastle | Menk F.M.,University of Newcastle
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2012

It is generally accepted that electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are generated around the equatorial regions and propagate toward the high latitude ionospheres in both hemispheres. Here we describe a prolonged EMIC wave event in the Pc2 (0.1-0.2 Hz) frequency band above the He + cyclotron frequency detected by the four Cluster satellites as they traversed sunward from L ∼ 13 in the outer magnetosphere to the magnetopause, over 13°C-20°C magnetic latitude north of the equator and across the high latitude cusp region near local magnetic noon. Wave packet energy propagated dominantly along the geomagnetic field direction, confirming this was a traveling EMIC wave rather than a toroidal field line resonance. The energy packets propagated in alternating directions rather than uni-directionally from the equator, implying the wave source was located in a high latitude region away from the equator, where a minimum in the B field is located. The CIS-CODIF H+ ion data provided evidence that the waves were generated locally via the ion cyclotron instability. We believe the off-equatorial minimum magnetic field regions may be important source regions for these waves in the outer magnetosphere. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Zeng Y.X.,Polar Research Institute of China
Archives of microbiology | Year: 2013

Two 16S rRNA gene clone libraries Cores 1U and 2U were constructed using two ice core samples collected from Austre Lovénbreen glacier in Svalbard. The two libraries yielded a total of 262 clones belonging to 59 phylotypes. Sequences fell into 10 major lineages of the domain Bacteria, including Proteobacteria (alpha, beta, gamma and delta subdivisions), Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes, Cyanobacteria and candidate division TM7. Among them, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Cyanobacteria were most abundant. UniFrac data showed no significant differences in community composition between the two ice cores. A total of nineteen bacterial strains from the genera Pseudoalteromonas and Psychrobacter were isolated from the ice cores. Phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses revealed a close relationship between the ice core isolates and bacteria in marine environments, indicating a wide distribution of some bacterial phylotypes in both terrestrial and marine ecosystems.

Araki T.,Polar Research Institute of China
Earth, Planets and Space | Year: 2014

Being stimulated by the previously reported large amplitude (202 nT at Kakioka) geomagnetic sudden commencement (SC) on 24 March 1991, we searched larger amplitude SCs in the past. We tried to collect old magnetograms and used the list of SC observed at Kakioka (27.5° for the period 1924 to 2013 and Colaba (10.5°)-Alibag (10.3°) for 1868 to 1967. We found that the largest amplitude SC occurred on 24 March (the same day as 1991 SC), 1940. The H-component amplitude is larger than 273 nT at Kakioka and 310 nT at Alibag. We could also obtain the copy of the magnetogram of Cape Town (-33.3°) which shows 164 nT amplitude. The statistical analysis shows that the occurrence rate of SCs is less than 5% for amplitude larger than 50 nT and less than 1% for amplitude larger than 100 nT at both Kakioka and Alibag. Large amplitude SCs tend to occur during the declining phase of the solar activity. Finally, we discussed the possible increase of the dynamic pressure associated with the interplanetary shock causing the largest SC. © 2014 Araki; licensee Springer.

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