Sobczak J.J.,Poland Foundry Research Institute |
Drenchev L.,Bulgarian Academy of Science
Journal of Materials Science and Technology | Year: 2013
Functionally graded materials, including their characterization, properties and production methods are a new rapidly developing field of materials science. The aims of this review are to systematize the basic production techniques for manufacturing functionally graded materials. Attention is paid to the principles for obtaining graded structure mainly in the metal based functionally graded materials. Several unpublished results obtained by the authors have been discussed briefly. Experimental methods and theoretical analysis for qualitative and quantitative estimation of graded properties have also been presented. The article can be useful for people who work in the field of functionally graded structures and materials, and who need a compact informative review of recent experimental and theoretical activity in this area. © 2013.
Gorny Z.,Poland Foundry Research Institute |
Kluska-Nawarecka S.,Poland Foundry Research Institute |
Wilk-Kolodziejczyk D.,Andrzei Frycz Modrzewski Cracow University
Archives of Metallurgy and Materials | Year: 2013
The object of the conducted experimental studies was determination of the physical properties of the BA 1044 alloy subjected to several types of toughening and modification under varying conditions. The aim of the experiments was to determine which of the above mentioned technological processes has greater impact on the value of the alloy parameters and how these treatments should be chosen to get the metal with the desired properties on a limited number of experiments.
Ricci E.,CNR Institute for Energetics and Interphases |
Giuranno D.,CNR Institute for Energetics and Interphases |
Sobczak N.,Poland Foundry Research Institute
Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance | Year: 2013
A new testing procedure combining in one test two methods for surface tension measurements of liquid metals [the pendant drop (PD) and the sessile drop] and carried out in the same device is discussed. The attention is focused on methodological aspects of the PD method due to the novelty of its application for high temperature metallic systems. It has been claimed that under the conditions applied in the present study, this method can be considered as a quasi-containerless one. Surface tension measurements of pure Cu, Ni, Al, and Fe performed using the new procedure are described. To confirm the validity of this procedure, the experimental results are discussed in the framework of the available literature data, particularly those obtained by the containerless methods. © 2013 The Author(s).
Fima P.,Poland Foundry Research Institute |
Fima P.,Polish Academy of Sciences
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2011
The surface tension and density measurements for Sn-Ag alloys were carried out with the sessile drop method. Seven different compositions were investigated in the range from 0.011 to 0.5 mole fraction of Ag, in a broad range of temperature. With increasing concentrations of Ag, both density and the surface tension are increased. With increasing temperature the density decreases for all of the alloys. A decrease of the surface tension is observed for most of the composition except for the alloy of 0.5 mole fractions of Ag. The obtained results are compared with existing literature data and Butler model calculations and relatively good agreement is observed. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pirowski Z.,Poland Foundry Research Institute
Archives of Foundry Engineering | Year: 2015
Superalloys show a good combination of mechanical strength and resistance to surface degradation under the influence of chemically active environments at high temperature. They are characterized by very high heat and creep resistance. Their main application is in gas turbines, chemical industry, and in all those cases where resistance to creep and the aggressive corrosion environment is required. Modern jet engines could never come into use if not for progress in the development of superalloys. Superalloys are based on iron, nickel and cobalt. The most common and the most interesting group includes superalloys based on nickel. They carry loads at temperatures well in excess of the eighty percent of the melting point. This group includes the H282 alloy, whose nominal chemical composition is as follows (wt%): Ni - base, Fe - max. 1.5%, Al - 1.5% Ti - 2.1%, C - 0.06% Co - 10% Cr - 20% Mo - 8.5%. This study shows the results of thermal analysis of the H282 alloy performed on a cast step block with different wall thickness. Using the results of measurements, changes in the temperature of H282 alloy during its solidification were determined, and the relationship dT / dt = f (t) was derived. The results of the measurements taken at different points in the cast step block allowed identifying a number of thermal characteristics of the investigated alloy and linking the size of the dendrites formed in a metal matrix (DAS) with the thermal effect of solidification. It was found that the time of solidification prolonged from less than ome minute at 10 mm wall thickness to over seven minutes at the wall thickness of 44 mm doubled the value of DAS. © by Z. Pirowski 2015.
Fima P.,Polish Academy of Sciences |
Fima P.,Poland Foundry Research Institute
International Journal of Materials Research | Year: 2012
The surface tension and density of Sn-Ag-Cu alloys, lying along two cross-sections of silver to copper molar ratios equal to 1 and 7/3, were studied. Sessile drop measurements were carried out over a broad temperature range. It was found that both surface tension and density decrease with increasing concentration of Sn. With the increase in temperature, the density decreases linearly for all compositions, whereas the surface tension shows linear and curvilinear dependence for different compositions. The results are compared with literature data obtained with a different technique and the results of model calculations. Relatively good agreement is observed between the models and experimental data. © 2012 Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH & Co. KG.
Gazda A.,Poland Foundry Research Institute
Thermochimica Acta | Year: 2010
Using especially designed and constructed isothermal calorimeter, the austempering of Cu-Ni ductile iron was carried out at temperatures of Tpi = 270, 350, 390 and 430 °C, simultaneously with the measurement of accompanying thermal effects. The values of enthalpy changes ΔH show the correct and expected trend, varying from 45 J/g at Tpi = 430 °C to 70 J/g at Tpi = 270 °C. The changes of enthalpy were observed to increase with decreasing temperature of the isothermal transformation during austempering. The results of the present work did not allow revealing the influence of alloying elements, i.e. Cu and Ni, on the heat of isothermal transformation. The discrepancies between the results of the actual measurements and the results quoted in other papers were discussed in terms of DSC measurements. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Izdebska-Szanda I.,Poland Foundry Research Institute |
Balinski A.,Poland Foundry Research Institute
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2011
The article presents the structural, technological and ecological features of the new type of silicate binders. The binders are used in foundry practice to produce moulds and cores, especially for castings made from non-ferrous metal alloys. The nanostructure of binders was described, i.e. the size and decay of nanoparticles of the diffuse binder phase. The technological research showed the beneficial mechanical properties of moulding sands prepared with these binders at both ambient temperature and at temperatures of up to 900°C (the residual strength), compared to the moulding sands with traditional silicate binders. The residual strength of moulding sands with the new binder decreased by about 50% at 800°C. The results of comparative chromatography of the thermal emission rate of harmful gases and odours were examined for moulding sands with new silicate binders and with organic binders. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Warmuzek M.,Poland Foundry Research Institute
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2014
In this study an effect of the alloying elements content and cooling rate on the morphology and chemical composition of the Ni-containing intermetallic phases in the Al-Si piston alloys has been examined. Compiled procedure of the selection and classification of the point X-ray microanalysis results allowed to estimate homogeneity range of the particular classes of the Ni-containing intermetallic phases occurred in the AlSi12MCuNiMg and AlSi21CuNi alloys. Replacement range: Cu → Ni in the Al3(CuNi)2 phase, and Fe → Ni or Cu → Fe in the Al9(FeNi)2 phase has been estimated and compared to that reported previously. The obtained results showed that chemical composition of the Ni-containing microstructure constituents locally reflected the sequence of precipitation processes on the alloy solidification path. The process of the formation of the Ni-containing intermetallic phases in form of terminal solid solutions of alloying elements in the crystal structure of the base phase through series of both peritectic and eutectic reactions has been discussed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fima P.,Poland Foundry Research Institute |
Fima P.,Polish Academy of Sciences
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2010
The surface tension and density of Sn-Cu liquid alloys were measured with the sessile drop method, in a broad range of temperature. Total of seven compositions were investigated in the range from 0.018 to 0.5 mole fraction of Cu. With increasing concentration of Cu, both density and the surface tension are increased. With increasing temperature the density decreases linearly for all of the compositions. The surface tension exhibits similar behavior for most of the compositions, except for the alloy of 0.5 mole fractions of Cu, in which case the increase of the surface tension is observed. The obtained results are compared with existing literature data and Butler model calculations, and a relatively good agreement is observed. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.