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Pokhara, Nepal

Pokhara University was established in 1996 as Nepal's fifth University. The central office of the university is located in Pokhara, Kaski district, Western Development Region. Along with Purbanchal University, PU was formed as part of the government's policy for improved access to higher education. The Prime Minister is the Chancellor of the University and the Minister for Education is the Pro-Chancellor. The Vice Chancellor is the principal administrator of the university. Wikipedia.


Bhatta D.N.,Pokhara University
International Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background: Transgender women are a vulnerable and key risk group for HIV, and most research has shown an increased frequency of HIV infection among this minority population. This study examined the prevalence of HIV-related sexual risk behaviors and the socio-demographic correlates with HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among male-to-female (MtF) transgender persons. Methods: Data were collected from a sample of 232 individuals through venue-based and snowball sampling and face-to-face interviews. Results: The HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among the MtF transgender persons were: sex without using a condom (48.3%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 41.8-54.8), unprotected anal sex (68.1%; 95% CI 62.0-74.2), and unprotected sex with multiple partners (88.4%; 95% CI 84.3-92.5). Statistically significant differences were found for age, income, education, alcohol habit, and sex with more than two partners per day for these three different HIV-related sexual risk behaviors. MtF transgender persons with a secondary or higher level of education were three times (OR 2.93) more likely to have unprotected sex with multiple partners compared to those with a primary level or no education. Conclusions: Age, education, income, frequency of daily sexual contact, and an alcohol habit remain significant with regard to HIV-related sexual risk behavior. There is an urgent need for programs and interventions to reduce risky sexual behaviors in this minority population. © 2014. Source


Acharya J.,Pokhara University
Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives | Year: 2016

Objectives: The Government of Nepal revised free maternity health services, "Aama Surakshya Karyakram", beginning at the start of Fiscal Year 2012/13, which specifies the services to be funded, the tariffs for reimbursement, and the system for claiming and reporting on free deliveries each month. This study was designed to investigate the amount of monetary expenditure incurred by families using apparently free maternity services. Methods: Between August 2014 and December 2014, a hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted at Manipal Teaching Hospital and Western Regional Hospital. Nepalese women were not involved with family finances and had very little knowledge of income or expenditures. Therefore, face-to-face interviews with 384 postpartum mothers with their husbands or the head of the family household were conducted at the time of discharge by using a pre-tested semi-structural questionnaire. Results: The average monthly family income was 19,272.4 NRs (189.01 US$), the median duration of hospital stay was 4 days (range, 2-19 days), and the median patient expenditure was equivalent to 13% of annual family income. The average total visible cost was 3,887.07 NRs (38.1 US$). When the average total hidden cost of 27,288.5 NRs (267.6 US$) was added, then the average total maternity care expenditure was 31,175.6 NRs (305.76 US$), with an average cost per day of 7,167.5 NRs (70.29 US$). The mean patient expenditure on food and drink, clothes, transport, and medicine was equivalent to 53.07%, 9.8%. 7.3%, and 5.6% of the mean total maternity care expenditure, respectively. The earnings lost by respondent women, husbands, and heads of household were 5,963.7 NRs (58.4 US$), 7,429.3 NRs (72.9 US$), and 6,175.9 NRs (60.6 US$), respectively. Conclusion: The free maternity service in Nepal has high out-of-pocket expenditures, and did not represent a system completely free of costs. Therefore, arrangements should be made by hospitals free of cost to provide medicine that is not included as essential during the hospital stay and at discharge time. Similarly, arrangements for liquid, food, and hot water, as well as clothes for mothers and newborns, should be made by the hospital in order to enhance hospital attendance. © 2015 Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Published by Elsevier Korea LLC. Source


Yadav D.K.,Pokhara University
Journal of Nepal Health Research Council | Year: 2011

Babies with a birth weight of less than 2500 grams, irrespective of the period of their gestation are termed as Low Birth Weight (LBW) babies. Despite consistent efforts to improve the quality of maternal and child health, more than twenty million low birth-weight (LBW) babies are born every year throughout the world. Though, the health situation of Nepal has improved substantially over the years, the low birth-weight (LBW) rate still high. The present study was to explore the effects of various maternal risk factors associated with low birth-weight of institutionally delivered newborns. A cross sectional hospital based study was conducted in Obstetrics and Gynaecology ward of Janakpur Zonal Hospital, Janakpur, Nepal from December 2009 to January 2010. Altogether 306 respondents were taken and respondents were mothers who have delivered newborns in hospital. A total of 1426 birth occurred during the study period (December 2009 to January 2010), of which 306 met the study criteria. Among which 66 (21.56%) were low birth weight (LBW) and 240 were normal birth weight (NBW). Overall mean birth weight was found to be 2.75 ± 0.639 kg. Out of total 21.56% newborns were weighing less than 2.50 kg and mean birth weight was 1.96 ± 0.409 kg. The study also shows that majority 73 (86%) of the research centers didn't start the research yet. This study suggests that there are several factors interplaying which lead to LBW babies. Socio-demographic factors (maternal age, educational level and economic status) and antenatal care are more important. Source


Gaire B.P.,Gachon University | Subedi L.,Pokhara University
Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine | Year: 2014

Phyllanthus emblica L. (syn. Emblica officinalis) is commonly known as Indian gooseberry. In Ayurveda, P. emblica has been extensively used, both as edible (tonic) plants and for its therapeutic potentials. P. emblica is highly nutritious and is reported as an important dietary source of vitamin C, minerals and amino acids. All parts of the plant are used for medicinal purposes, especially the fruit, which has been used in Ayurveda as a potent Rasayana (rejuvenator). P. emblica contains phytochemicals including fixed oils, phosphatides, essential oils, tannins, minerals, vitamins, amino acids, fatty acids, glycosides, etc. Various pharmaceutical potential of P. emblica has been reported previously including antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic, adaptogenic, hepatoprotective, antitumor and antiulcerogenic activities either in combined formulation or P. emblica alone. The various other Ayurvedic potentials of P. emblica are yet to be proven scientifically in order to explore its broad spectrum of therapeutic effects. On this regards we, in this review, tried to explore the complete information of P. emblica including its pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and pharmacology. © 2014 Chinese Association of the Integration of Traditional and Western Medicine and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Source


Dhami N.,Pokhara University
Journal of Herbal Medicine | Year: 2013

Natural medicines have been used to enhance human and veterinary health since time immemorial and the success of modern medical science largely depends on drugs originally obtained from natural resources. In the past, traditional medicinal knowledge prevalent in the form of holy books, incantations, folklores, Materia Medica and other historical literature defined the preliminary guidelines for the authorization of plant derived natural medicines. The conventional medical practices adopted for identification and authentication of natural remedies eventually framed the botanico-chemical approach to Pharmacognosy during the early 19th century. However, the last 200 years witnessed a substantial metamorphosis in the principles and practices of Pharmacognosy and it has become an essential domain of modern pharmaceutical science as a multidisciplinary high-tech science of natural medicines. In a contemporary context, the systematic study of natural medicines in terms of purity, potency, consistency and safety have become the major issues in Pharmacognosy. Moreover, most of the present day's drug discoveries have been increasingly adopting traditional medicine based approaches to increase results and to address safety concerns. Thus, Clinical Pharmacognosy, Analytical Pharmacognosy and Industrial Pharmacognosy have been established as the specialized and professional offshoots of Pharmacognosy to meet the contemporary advancements in the field of Pharmacognosy. Furthermore, Molecular Pharmacognosy, Genomic Pharmacognosy and Metabolomic Pharmacognosy have been deemed as the promising approaches of Pharmacognosy research to accommodate future demands in molecular biology, biotechnology and analytical chemistry of natural medicines plus medicinal plants. Nevertheless, interdisciplinary collaborative research programmes are essential for integrated development of traditional medicines and Pharmacognosy research and education. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved. Source

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