Salama S.,HOpital prive de Parly |
Salama S.,France Inter |
Boitrelle F.,Cytogenetics and Gynaecology |
Boitrelle F.,University of Versailles |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of Sexual Medicine
Introduction: During sexual stimulation, some women report the discharge of a noticeable amount of fluid from the urethra, a phenomenon also called "squirting." To date, both the nature and the origin of squirting remain controversial. In this investigation, we not only analyzed the biochemical nature of the emitted fluid, but also explored the presence of any pelvic liquid collection that could result from sexual arousal and explain a massive fluid emission. Methods: Seven women, without gynecologic abnormalities and who reported recurrent and massive fluid emission during sexual stimulation, underwent provoked sexual arousal. Pelvic ultrasound scans were performed after voluntary urination (US1), and during sexual stimulation just before (US2) and after (US3) squirting. Urea, creatinine, uric acid, and prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations were assessed in urinary samples before sexual stimulation (BSU) and after squirting (ASU), and squirting sample itself (S). Results: In all participants, US1 confirmed thorough bladder emptiness. After a variable time of sexual excitation, US2 (just before squirting) showed noticeable bladder filling, and US3 (just after squirting) demonstrated that the bladder had been emptied again. Biochemical analysis of BSU, S, and ASU showed comparable urea, creatinine, and uric acid concentrations in all participants. Yet, whereas PSA was not detected in BSU in six out of seven participants, this antigen was present in S and ASU in five out of seven participants. Conclusions: The present data based on ultrasonographic bladder monitoring and biochemical analyses indicate that squirting is essentially the involuntary emission of urine during sexual activity, although a marginal contribution of prostatic secretions to the emitted fluid often exists. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Source
Boitrelle F.,Poissy General Hospital |
Boitrelle F.,University Of Saint Quentin En Yvelines |
Pagnier M.,University Of Saint Quentin En Yvelines |
Athiel Y.,University Of Saint Quentin En Yvelines |
And 13 more authors.
According to numerous assisted reproductive medicine practitioners, semen with normal characteristics might not require further investigation. However, on the scale of the individual spermatozoon, it is well known that normal morphology does not guarantee optimal nuclear quality. Here, for 20 patients with normal sperm characteristics and a high proportion of spermatozoa with noncondensed chromatin, we subsequently assessed chromatin condensation status (aniline blue staining) and morphology (Papanicolaou staining) of the same 3749 spermatozoa. Although the overall proportion of morphologically normal spermatozoa was not correlated with the overall proportion of spermatozoa with noncondensed chromatin, an individual spermatozoon's morphology appeared to be closely related to its chromatin condensation status. Morphologically normal spermatozoa with noncondensed chromatin were seen in all patients; the proportion averaged 23.3% [min 10.9%-max 44.4%]. Morphologically abnormal spermatozoa were more likely to have noncondensed chromatin than morphologically normal ones (P < 0.0001). Small-, large- or multiple-headed spermatozoa presented the highest degree of noncondensation (>80% for each type), and more than half the vacuolated spermatozoa also presented noncondensed chromatin. However, a morphologically normal spermatozoon may also have a noncondensed chromatin. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source