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Shadnia S.,Poison Center | Shadnia S.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Mehrpour O.,Birjand University | Soltaninejad K.,Legal Medicine Research Center
Indian Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2010

Background : Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is used as a fumigant. It produces phosphine gas, which is a mitochondrial poison. Unfortunately, there is no known antidote for AlP intoxication, and also, there are few data about its prognostic factors. AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPSII) in the prediction of outcome in patients with acute AlP poisoning requiring admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Materials and Methods : This was a prospective study in patients with acute AlP poisoning, admitted to the ICU over a period of 12 months. The demographic data were collected and SAPSII was recorded. The patients were divided into survival and non-survival groups due to outcome. Statistical Analysis : The data were expressed as mean ±SD for continuous or discrete variables and as frequency and percentage for categorical variables. The results were compared between the two groups using SPSS software. Results : During the study period, 39 subjects were admitted to the ICU with acute AlP poisoning. All 39 patients required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation in addition to gastric decontamination with sodium bicarbonate, permanganate potassium, and activated charcoal, therapy with MgSO 4 and calcium gluconate and adequate hydration. Among these patients, 26 (66.7%) died. SAPSII was significantly higher in the non-survival group than in the survival group (11.88 4.22 vs. 4.31 ±2.06, respectively) (P< 0.001). Conclusion : SAPSII calculated within the first 24 hours was recognized as a good prognostic indicator among patients with acute AlP poisoning requiring ICU admission. Source

MCKay C.,University of Connecticut | Scharman E.J.,Poison Center
Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America | Year: 2015

Numerous examples of chemical contamination of food, water, or medication have led to steps by regulatory agencies to maintain the safety of this critical social infrastructure and supply chain. Identification of contaminant site is important. Environmental testing and biomonitoring can define the nature and extent of the event and are useful for providing objective information, but may be unavailable in time for clinical care. Clinical diagnosis should be based on toxidrome recognition and assessment of public health implications. There are several resources available to assist and these can be accessed through regional poison control centers or local/state public health departments. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Bouchez C.,British Petroleum | Gervais F.,British Petroleum | Fleurance R.,British Petroleum | Palate B.,British Petroleum | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2012

Although a T-dependent antibody response (TDAR) assay is generally recommended as the first-line immune function assay in nonclinical immunotoxicity evaluation, second-line assays such as delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to measure cell-mediated responses can provide helpful additional information. In this study, male Cynomolgus monkeys were injected intramuscularly either once or twice with 1 mg Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH) or twice with a commercially available tetanus vaccine (40 IU tetanus toxoid + 0.06 mg aluminum hydroxide). All animals were subsequently challenged by intradermal injections of the same antigen or aluminum hydroxide after 4, 6 and 8 weeks. Clinical reactions at the injection sites were scored 24, 48 and 72 h post challenge. Skin biopsies were taken on completion of the observation period after each challenge for standard histological examination and immunolabeling using CD3 (T lymphocytes), CD19 (B lymphocytes) and CD68 (macrophages) antibodies. Tetanus toxoid induced stronger clinical reactions than KLH, whereas aluminum hydroxide induced no clinical reaction. Perivascular mononuclear cell infiltrates, a histopathological finding consistent with a DTH reaction, were seen after all challenges with tetanus toxoid or KLH, but not with aluminum hydroxide. Immunohistochemistry evidenced the presence of T lymphocytes and macrophages within these infiltrates. These results suggest that tetanus toxoid adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide can induce a consistent DTH response for use as a model of cell-mediated response in Cynomolgus monkeys. © 2012 The Japanese Society of Toxicologic Pathology. Source

Shahnazi M.,Shahid Beheshti University | Hassanian-Moghaddam H.,Shahid Beheshti University | Hassanian-Moghaddam H.,Poison Center | Gachkar L.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Clinical Toxicology | Year: 2015

Context. Toxicity due to body packing/pushing/stuffing is a major concern in many countries. Of different imaging techniques, computed tomography (CT) scan is described as the method of choice in detecting body couriers, but there is no study to concomitantly compare with- and without-contrast abdominopelvic CTs to determine the more accurate one for this purpose. Objective. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of abdominopelvic CT "with" and "without" oral contrast in diagnosis of existence, number, and type of packets in body packers/pushers and stuffers. Materials and methods. In a prospective observational case series, all suspected cases of body packing/stuffing were included and underwent abdominopelvic CT with and without oral contrast in a one-year period. CT scans were reported by three independent attending radiologists blind to the demographic and clinical results and compared to our defined "gold standard" which was surgery or expulsion of packets. The existence and number of packets detected by each method were compared to define the better method of diagnosis. Results. Of 11 suspect body packers/pushers, 10 carried packs. Abdominopelvic CT with and without oral contrast detected six and seven of them, respectively. In 24 body stuffers, CT without oral contrast was more accurate in diagnosis of existence (9/24 vs. 7/24, p = 0.003) and number (sensitivity and positive predictive values of 29.2% vs. 37.5% and 100% vs. 100% for CTs with and without oral contrast, respectively, p = 0.021). Discussion and conclusions. There is a remarkable gap between detection of existence and number of packets/baggies reported by the radiologists and the real condition of the patients. A close teamwork between radiologists and toxicologists is needed to manage these problematic cases. © 2015 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

Villa A.F.,Poison Center | El Balkhi S.,Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute | Aboura R.,Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute | Sageot H.,CRAMIF | And 11 more authors.
Industrial Health | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to evaluate air and surface contaminations, and internal contamination of healthcare workers during open-abdomen HIPEC using oxaliplatin. Platinum (Pt) was measured in urine of exposed workers and in multiple air and surface samples. Three successive HIPEC procedures were investigated in each of the two hospitals participating in the study. Analysis of air samples did not detect any oxaliplatin contamination. Heavy contamination of the operating table, the foor at the surgeon’s feet, and the surgeon’s overshoes were observed. Hand contamination was observed in surgeons using double gloves for intra-abdominal chemotherapy administration, but not in those using three sets of gloves. Pt was not detected in urine samples obtained after HIPEC (<5 ng/L). The main risk of HIPEC is related to direct or indirect skin exposure and can be prevented by correct use of adapted protective equipment. © 2015 National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Source

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