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Dhanbād, India

Kumar G.,Po Sindri Institute | Singh A.R.,Indian Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research | Srivastava S.,Indian Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research | Srivastava S.K.,Indian Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2012

Coal is an important source of energy and it has got remarkable effect when it is treated with alkali. The world's recoverable coal reserves contain about 3 x 1010 tons of hydrogen. "Hydrogen Economy' is a vision for future in with hydrogen replaced fossil fuels to reduce dependence on non-renewable energy and to cut down the environmentally harmful emissions. For this technology, hydrogen is mostly produced from hydrocarbons. Therefore, many researches have been conducted on hydrogen production from hydrocarbons to find the most economical, efficient and practical method of producing hydrogen as substitute of fossil fuel. Studies on production of environment friendly clean and green fuel hydrogen from different ranks of coal in presence of different alkalis were carried out under different reaction conditions. The yield of hydrogen depends upon the rank of coal as well as on the nature of alkali beside reaction temperature and other parameters. Amongst the various ranks of coals used, the maximum yield of gas obtained was 3.2 liters/10gm of coal with 80 %(v/v) of hydrogen from medium rank Swang coal (carbon-85.5%). Effects of temperature, particle size and coal-alkali ratio on the yield and quality of gas obtained from coal-alkali reaction were studied. It was found that the optimum reaction temperature is 6000C while 1: 1.3 is the optimum coal-alkali ratio and x72 BS mesh is the particle size for maximum yield and quality of fuel gas. Under optimum reaction condition, the yield of hydrogen and methane was 80% and 12% (v/v) respectively while in the absence of alkali the same were 18.8% and 38.8 % (v/v) respectively The yield of the product gas obtained on pyrolysis of Swang coal in absence of alkali was 0.7 liters/10 gm of coal. Thus, on addition of alkali, the product gas yield increases about five folds while the yield of hydrogen enhanced from 0.1316 liter to 2.56 liter i.e. about 20 times. The residual char was washed with water till alkali free. Alkali was recovered in the form of carbonates. The char was found to be extremely reactive towards steam gasification to generate CO + H2. Source


Kumar G.,Po Sindri Institute | Singh S.K.,Po Sindri Institute | Murari K.,Po Sindri Institute | Pandey V.,Po Sindri Institute | And 2 more authors.
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2012

Ground water is a renewable resource subjected to periodic replenishment primarily through precipitation. Recharge is one of the key hydrological parameters for assessment, budgeting, management, and modeling of ground water resources. Although information and data regarding recharge rate is vital for recharge assessment of any region, determination of this parameter is neither easy nor straightforward. Groundwater is one of the important sources of potable water. This accounts for a significant water resource in India for domestic, irrigation and industrial needs. Over 80% of the rural domestic water supply and 45% of the irrigation water supply in the country are met by these valuable resources. Besides quantity, groundwater quality is a serious problem in the country. In the present context, when ground water table level which is depleting every year, the study of its availability assessment becomes necessary. This assessment may be quite helpful in restricting our water requirement and leads us for the water requirement audit. Groundwater occurrence and storage in study area are mainly controlled by the geological set up of the area. The ability of geological formation to store and transmit water is dependent on its formation parameters, such as porosity and hydraulic conductivity. In the mining area, the water levels are bound to be affected and disturbed. Rainfall is the principal recharge source to groundwater. Besides rainfall, the mine water discharge from the local mining areas and existing water bodies including water logged in abundant mine quarries are also contributed to the ground water recharge as return flow. The present work attempts to establish a hydrogeological framework for the understanding of natural groundwater recharge processes in relation to climate, landform, geology, and biotic factors. It begins with the concepts of groundwater flow systems, which form the basis for comprehending recharge processes. It then concentrates on the sources and mechanisms of groundwater recharge and stresses the importance of developing correct conceptualizations of recharge. The ground water recharge potential in the area was estimated by using rainfall-infiltration and water table fluctuation methods. The annual withdrawal of water for irrigational uses as well as domestic uses have been calculated and also the annual draft through mine discharge have been calculated. On the basis of these studies, net annual ground water availability assessment has been made. The present work also highlights the quality of Ground Water of the area which is mainly of category B as per the IS: 10500. Source

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