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Durkee J.,PO Box 847
Metal Finishing | Year: 2010

The whole point of this column is that measurement is a common step employed in parts cleaning in Europe/Germany, and I seek to point this out as a difference between how work is done in nearly all the metal finishing shops I have visited in the U.S. and how it is done abroad. Next month, we'll conclude this three part series about my observations at the 2009 Parts-2-Clean Exhibition.


Petrie E.M.,PO Box 847
Metal Finishing | Year: 2010

Adhesives and sealants have evolved significantly as necessary components in the wind turbines, photovoltaic modules, and fuel cells that are being developed as alternative energy technologies. Solar photovoltaic modules and fuel cells may replace fossil-fuel based energy sources such as coal-fired power plants and internal combustion automobile engines. Wood is primarily used for traditional smaller wind turbines, accounting for about 14% of the turbine blade market. Reinforced plastic composites are required to achieve large blade structures that are strong, stiff, and light. Wind turbine manufacturers frequently use load-carrying epoxy resin adhesives for bonding metal hubs to the composite rotor blades. The wind turbine manufacturers are adopting adhesive in order to lower fabrication costs, increase production rates, and enhance durability. Another alternative energy technology is fuel cell, a power-generation system, in which hydrogen (H2) is used as a fuel source that can be extracted from fractionated hydrocarbons or natural gas.


Durkee J.,PO Box 847
Metal Finishing | Year: 2012

In addition to the skills needed and problems faced by a traditional process manager, one who is managing a cleaning line faces special challenges. But the skills needed to solve them should be manifested by any good manager and found in any well-managed enterprise. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


The aim of this study was to compare the number of inactivated-influenza vaccine-related spontaneous abortion and stillbirth (SB) reports in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) database during three consecutive flu seasons beginning 2008/2009 and assess the relative fetal death reports associated with the two-vaccine 2009/2010 season. The VAERS database was searched for reports of fetal demise following administration of the influenza vaccine/vaccines to pregnant women. Utilization of an independent surveillance survey and VAERS, two-source capture-recapture analysis estimated the reporting completeness in the 2009/2010 flu season. Capture-recapture demonstrated that the VAERS database captured about 13.2% of the total 1321 (95% confidence interval (CI): 815-2795) estimated reports, yielding an ascertainment-corrected rate of 590 fetal-loss reports per million pregnant women vaccinated (or 1 per 1695). The unadjusted fetal-loss report rates for the three consecutive influenza seasons beginning 2008/2009 were 6.8 (95% CI: 0.1-13.1), 77.8 (95% CI: 66.3-89.4), and 12.6 (95% CI: 7.2-18.0) cases per million pregnant women vaccinated, respectively. The observed reporting bias was too low to explain the magnitude increase in fetal-demise reporting rates in the VAERS database relative to the reported annual trends. Thus, a synergistic fetal toxicity likely resulted from the administration of both the pandemic (A-H1N1) and seasonal influenza vaccines during the 2009/2010 season. © 2013 The Author(s).


Durkee J.,PO Box 847
Metal Finishing | Year: 2011

The aerosol-dispensed cleaners offer several advantages to the customers including low cost and high flammability. They applied cleaning fluid by spray only to locations on a surface where it was wanted and the cleaning agent had been selected to wet the soiled surface, penetrate/dissolve the soil structure, and to fulfill the needed cleaning requirement. The condition that produces an aerosol is a high velocity of propellant relative to liquid. The tiny droplets of liquid are produced via shearing of larger droplets using the force released when the pressurized propellant is allowed to expand when the control nozzle in the aerosol can is opened. The aerosol can contain two chemical components including the cleaning solvent and a propellant. The propellant should be a liquid whose boiling point is slightly lower than the temperature of use. It allows the can to contain the liquid solvent and have the propellant be in the vapor phase under a modest pressure, sufficient to expel the can's contents on demand.


Durkee J.,PO Box 847
Metal Finishing | Year: 2011

This column should be about your needs. If you don't require the unusual strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance of titanium, perhaps you shouldn't have read this article. On the other hand, if you need the benefits titanium offers this article only scratches the surface of what you need to know. © 2011 Elsevier, Inc.


Durkee J.,PO Box 847
Metal Finishing | Year: 2012

Perchloroethylene (perc) remains the solvent of choice for dry cleaners in Europe and North America, despite increasing pressure over many years to switch to alternative cleaning processes. Dry-cleaners can now choose from alternative cleaning systems that are based on silicone, hydrocarbon, and liquid carbon dioxide. Considerable quantitative data are available about this industry, which has close contact with the public. This has led to both voluntary changes by dry-cleaning shops, as well as regulatory action. Testimonials of successful conversion from perc to something 'green' abound on the Internet. Of course, it is usually non-franchise chain shops that have converted. If the operator of a fabricating line, cutting sheet steel, wants to remove a rust-protective oil sprayed on at the mill, and not use a water-based product that would require application of another rust protective coating, he or she would be doing that with trichloroethylene.


Durkee J.,PO Box 847
Metal Finishing | Year: 2013

Like any industry, there are more user firms than supplier firms. In the surface finishing industry, large numbers of users are distributed nationally - a much smaller number of equipment suppliers are distributed regionally. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Durkee J.,PO Box 847
Metal Finishing | Year: 2013

OSHA has partnered with the American Congress of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) an independent non-for-profit organization of nearly impeccable reputation, for its three part plan for developing new permissible exposure limit (PEL). Under this newly announced partnership, the ACGIH will both allow OSHA to publish their current TLVs (Threshold Limit Value), and sell compilations of the same values and the basis by which they were determined. Among other activities, the ACGIH convenes panels of industrial hygienists to review collections of epidemiological data and collectively recommend an exposure limit. The announced action plan includes of development by OSHA of new exposure limits, nor sponsoring of others to do so.


Durkee J.,PO Box 847
Metal Finishing | Year: 2013

The article explains how to choose the right kind of cavitation bubbles and the right type of transducer to generate them. Megasonic transducers do not produce cavitation bubbles, and are not commonly used in metal finishing operations, except to remove surface rust and other dense debris in remanufacturing operations. Larger bubbles, which will ultimately release more energy per bubble when collapsed, are formed when there is more time for them to do so. This means when the frequency is low. Essentially, the energy released to do cleaning work on surfaces is the product of the volume of each bubble times the number of bubbles. Managers should organize and witness cleaning demonstrations using actual soiled parts with facilities provided by suppliers. These parts should be cleaned using several transducer configurations and the performance evaluated by the normally used cleaning test. Let the details of the application reveal the right choice of frequency.

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