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Helsinki, Finland

In this journal's first article, Strupp (1963) pointed to problems specifying independent and dependent variables as a source of slow progress in psychotherapy outcome research. This commentary agrees, shows how the concept of variable loses its meaning in psychotherapy research because of participants' responsiveness, and notes an alternative research strategy that does not depend on variables. © 2013 American Psychological Association. Source

Mirshamsi O.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad | Azghadi S.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad | Navidpour S.,Razi Reference Laboratory of Scorpion Research | Aliabadian M.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad | Kovarik F.,PO Box 27

A new species of scorpions in the genus Odontobuthus (Scorpiones, Buthidae) is described from Khorasan Province, Iran. Currently, Odontobuthus includes two species in Iran, Odontobuthus doriae Thorell, 1876, which is restricted to high el-evations of the central Iranian Plateau and Odontobuthus bidentatus Lourenço & Pezier, 2002 from the Zagros Mountains. The results of morphological comparisons, univariate and multivariate statistical analyses and phylogenetic analysis of COI sequence data clearly confirm a deep split between populations from the eastern Iranian Plateau and O. bidentatus Lourenço & Pezier, 2002 and O. doriae Thorell, 1876. Therefore, according to comparative morphological and molecular analyses, a new species, Odontobuthus tigari sp. nov. (♀♂) was described from eastern Iran. This addition represents the third species of this genus from Iran. © 2013 Magnolia Press. Source

Chiarle A.,Museo Regionale di Science Naturali di Turin | Kovarik F.,PO Box 27 | Levi L.,Museo Regionale di Science Naturali di Turin | Gavetti E.,Museo Regionale di Science Naturali di Turin
Arachnologische Mitteilungen

Data and considerations about the history and contents of the scorpion collection housed in the Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali of Turin (MRSN) are reported. Information on type material and important historical specimens are provided, as well as biographical notes about the major zoologists of the museum. Source

Donnelly A.,PO Box 27
Australian Field Ornithology

In the early 20th century, Stubble Quail Coturnix pectoralis were common in Tasmania, more so than the Brown Quail C. ypsilophora. By the mid 20th century, the Stubble Quail had almost disappeared and was granted full protection, although this decline largely has been forgotten. It is possible that Stubble Quail became extinct in Tasmania, and the rare sightings now are of stragglers from either the Australian mainland or King Island. There have been recent observations around Cressy, in northern Tasmania, that may be of a resident population. The decline of the Stubble Quail has been overlooked by current workers and has clouded its conservation status. It may deserve listing as an endangered species in Tasmania. Source

Pakarinen A.,PO Box 27 | Maijala P.,PO Box 27 | Stoddard F.L.,PO Box 27 | Santanen A.,PO Box 27 | And 3 more authors.
Biomass and Bioenergy

Three annual plant species, maize, hemp and faba bean were tested for suitability as dedicated biomass crops in Boreal conditions. Biomass yields were 10-15 t ha-1. The crops were analyzed for their composition and tested as raw materials for conversion to methane and to fermentable sugars. The methane yield was 379 ± 16 Ndm3 kg-1 VS-1 from maize, 387 ± 20 Ndm3 kg-1 VS-1 from faba bean and 239 ± 9 Ndm3 kg-1 VS-1 from hemp. Based on the yield per hectare, maize proved to be the most potential raw material source for methane production. Analogous to methane production, maize was the most productive raw material also in standard hydrolysis tests, with a conversion yield of about 80% of the theoretical sugars. Based on the amount of carbohydrates, the highest theoretical yield per hectare was obtained with hemp. However, considering all parameters, including the need for weeding and fertilizers, all three crops studied proved to be attractive options for cultivation in boreal conditions as well as being used as energy crops in boreal climate. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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