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Spokane, WA, United States

Hoffmann T.K.,PO Box 1495
JBIS - Journal of the British Interplanetary Society | Year: 2014

As governments and corporations continue to engage space security, commerce, exploration and colonization, the Christian Church will not be far behind. Historically the Church has always been part of the first waves of explorers and colonizers, with its ideological interests being easily supported by generous resources and strong infrastructures. The exploring Church has not always been a friendly guest, however, and at times has initiated or condoned great harm. This paper offers a beginning framework as one way of insuring an appropriate presence in space for the Church. This framework is built with three common religious planks, namely, theology, ecclesiology and church worker vocation. Each of these is recast in terms of the off-planet scenario. This paper concludes that an appropriate off-planet Church will be founded on an "exomissiological" theology, will embrace an ecclesiology that emphasizes religious health, and will adequately select, train and monitor its off-planet church workers. Source

Bindler R.C.,PO Box 1495 | Daratha K.B.,Washington State University | Daratha K.B.,Providence Medical Research Center | Daratha K.B.,University of Washington | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2014

Objectives: To (1) elucidate the range of serum uric acid (UA) levels in adolescent sample; (2) examine the relationships of serum UA and 1-year change with gender, anthropometric and cardiometabolic factors. Materials and methods: Measurements (anthropometrics, fasting venipuncture and blood pressure) were performed at the beginning of the seventh and eighth grades. Descriptive data, differences according to weight, correlations and changes over time were examined. Findings: In 77 adolescents, BMI and serum UA had relationships with several cardiometabolic measures. Males had higher serum UA at follow-up compared to baseline; female change was minimal. Time-by-gender interaction was significant, as were the main effects of gender and BMI classification. Males had lower HDL-C at follow-up than at baseline; females had higher HDL-C at follow-up. Conclusions: Serum UA has importance in cardiometabolic examination of youth risk factors. It should be examined in youth with elevated BMI and/or hypertension. Early adolescence is the period when gender-related metabolic changes occur. Source

Szentirmai E.,PO Box 1495 | Szentirmai E.,Washington State University | Kapas L.,PO Box 1495 | Kapas L.,Washington State University
European Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Metabolic signals related to feeding and body temperature regulation have profound effects on vigilance. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a key effector organ in the regulation of metabolism in several species, including rats and mice. Significant amounts of active BAT are also present throughout adulthood in humans. The metabolic activity of BAT is due to the tissue-specific presence of the uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1). To test the involvement of BAT thermogenesis in sleep regulation, we investigated the effects of two sleep-promoting stimuli in UCP-1-deficient mice. Sleep deprivation by gentle handling increased UCP-1 mRNA expression in BAT and elicited rebound increases in non-rapid-eye-movement sleep and rapid-eye-movement sleep accompanied by elevated slow-wave activity of the electroencephalogram. The rebound sleep increases were significantly attenuated, by ~ 35-45%, in UCP-1-knockout (KO) mice. Wild-type (WT) mice with capsaicin-induced sensory denervation of the interscapular BAT pads showed similar impairments in restorative sleep responses after sleep deprivation, suggesting a role of neuronal sleep-promoting signaling from the BAT. Exposure of WT mice to 35 °C ambient temperature for 5 days led to increased sleep and body temperature and suppressed feeding and energy expenditure. Sleep increases in the warm environment were significantly suppressed, by ~ 50%, in UCP-1-KO animals while their food intake and energy expenditure did not differ from those of the WTs. These results suggest that the metabolic activity of the BAT plays a role in generating a metabolic environment that is permissive for optimal sleep. Impaired BAT function may be a common underlying cause of sleep insufficiency and metabolic disorders. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

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