München, Germany
München, Germany

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Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2012-1.1.26. | Award Amount: 8.20M | Year: 2013

This project aims at integrating the major European infrastructures in the field of high-resolution solar physics. The following actions will be taken: (i) realise Trans-national Access to external European users; (ii) enhance and spread data acquisition and processing expertise to the Europe-wide community; (iii) increase the impact of high-resolution data by offering science-ready data and facilitating their retrieval and usage; (iv) encourage combination of space and ground-based data by providing unified access to pertinent data repositories; (v) foster synergies between different research communities by organising meetings where each presents state-of-the-art methodologies; (vi) train a new generation of solar researchers through setting up schools and an ambitious mobility programme; (vii) develop prototypes for new-generation post-focus instruments; (vii) study local and non-local atmospheric turbulence, their impact on image quality, and ways to negate their effects; (viii) improve the performance of existing telescopes; (ix) improve designs of future large European ground-and space-based solar telescopes; (x) lay foundations for combined use of facilities around the world and in space; (xi) reinforce partnership with industry to promote technology transfer through existing networks; and (xii) dissemination activities towards society. The project involves all pertinent European research institutions, infrastructures, and data repositories. Together, these represent first-class facilities. The additional participation by private companies and non-European research institutions maximizes the impact on the world-wide scale. In particular, the project achievements will be of principal importance in defining the exploitation of the future 4-meter European Solar Telescope.

Muller K.,University of Bremen | Ryll H.,PNSensor GmbH | Ordavo I.,PNSensor GmbH | Ihle S.,PNSensor GmbH | And 5 more authors.
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2012

A high-speed direct electron detection system is introduced to the field of transmission electron microscopy and applied to strain measurements in semiconductor nanostructures. In particular, a focused electron probe with a diameter of 0.5 nm was scanned over a fourfold quantum layer stack with alternating compressive and tensile strain and diffracted discs have been recorded on a scintillator-free direct electron detector with a frame time of 1 ms. We show that the applied algorithms can accurately detect Bragg beam positions despite a significant point spread each 300 kV electron causes during detection on the scintillator-free camera. For millisecond exposures, we find that strain can be measured with a precision of 1.3 × 10 - 3, enabling, e.g., strain mapping in a 100 × 100 nm 2 region with 0.5 nm resolution in 40 s. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

Marcus G.,Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics | Marcus G.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Helml W.,Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics | Gu X.,Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics | And 9 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

Subfemtosecond bursts of extreme ultraviolet radiation, facilitated by a process known as high-order harmonic generation, are a key ingredient for attosecond metrology, providing a tool to precisely initiate and probe ultrafast dynamics in the microcosms of atoms, molecules, and solids. These ultrashort pulses are always, and as a by-product of the way they are generated, accompanied by laser-induced recollisions of electrons with their parent ions. By using a few-cycle infrared (λ 0=2.1μm) driving laser, we were able to directly excite high-energy (∼870eV) inner-shell electrons through laser-induced electron recollision, opening the door to time-resolved studies of core-level and concomitant multielectron dynamics. © 2012 American Physical Society.

PubMed | Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of Southern California, SLAC and PNSensor GmbH
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Structural dynamics (Melville, N.Y.) | Year: 2016

Lensless x-ray microscopy requires the recovery of the phase of the radiation scattered from a specimen. Here, we demonstrate a de novo phase retrieval technique by encapsulating an object in a superfluid helium nanodroplet, which provides both a physical support and an approximate scattering phase for the iterative image reconstruction. The technique is robust, fast-converging, and yields the complex density of the immersed object. Images of xenon clusters embedded in superfluid helium droplets reveal transient configurations of quantum vortices in this fragile system.

Send S.,University of Siegen | Abboud A.,University of Siegen | Leitenberger W.,University of Potsdam | Weiss M.S.,Helmholtz Center Berlin | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Applied Crystallography | Year: 2012

A crystal of hen egg-white lysozyme was analyzed by means of energy-dispersive X-ray Laue diffraction with white synchrotron radiation at 2.7 Å resolution using a pnCCD detector. From Laue spots measured in a single exposure of the arbitrarily oriented crystal, the lattice constants of the tetragonal unit cell could be extracted with an accuracy of about 2.5%. Scanning across the sample surface, Laue images with split reflections were recorded at various positions. The corresponding diffraction patterns were generated by two crystalline domains with a tilt of about 1° relative to each other. The obtained results demonstrate the potential of the pnCCD for fast X-ray screening of crystals of macromolecules or proteins prior to conventional X-ray structure analysis. The described experiment can be automatized to quantitatively characterize imperfect single crystals or polycrystals. © 2012 International Union of Crystallography Printed in Singapore-all rights reserved.

Pnsensor Gmbh and Pndetector Gmbh | Date: 2012-06-18

The invention relates to a semiconductor drift detector for detecting radiation, comprising a semiconductor substrate (HS), in which signal charge carriers are generated during operation, to be precise by incident photons (hf) having a specific photon energy, more particularly in the form of X-ray fluorescent radiation, and/or by incident electrons (), having a specific signal charge carrier current, more particularly in the form of back-scattered electrons (), and comprising a read-out anode (A) for generating an electrical output signal in a manner dependent on the signal charge carriers, and comprising an erase contact (RC) for erasing the signal charge carriers that have accumulated in the semiconductor substrate (HS). The invention provides for the semiconductor drift detector to be optionally operable in a first operating mode or in a second operating mode, wherein the semiconductor drift detector in the first operating mode measures the photon energy of the incident photons (hf), whereas the semiconductor drift detector in the second operating mode measures the signal charge carrier current. Furthermore, the invention encompasses a corresponding operating method.

Lutz G.,PNSensor GmbH | Lechner P.,PNSensor GmbH | Porro M.,Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics | Struder L.,Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics | De Vita G.,Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment | Year: 2010

A new DEPFET detector-amplifier structure with strongly non-linear characteristics is presented. It will be used as basic element of an X-ray pixel detector at the new XFEL free electron laser radiation source to be constructed in Hamburg, Germany, providing at the same time single X-ray photon detection and high dynamic range even when operated at readout frequency up to 5 MHz. This is possible due to the new detector concept that adds to the excellent DEPFET properties combined function of detector amplifier and data storage, full sensitivity over whole bulk, non-destructive readout, low serial noise and absence of reset noise the new features of very large charge handling capability and signal compression. Concept and design will be presented and properties demonstrated by extended computer simulations. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Nagaraju K.,Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research | Feller A.,Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research | Ihle S.,PNSensor GmbH | Soltau H.,PNSensor GmbH
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2011

High-precision full-Stokes polarimetry at near diffraction limited spatial resolution is important to understand numerous physical processes on the Sun. In view of the next generation of ground based solar telescopes, we have explored, through numerical simulation, how polarimetric accuracy is affected by atmospheric seeing, especially in the case of large aperture telescopes with increasing ratio between mirror diameter and Fried parameter. In this work we focus on higher-order wavefront aberrations. The numerical generation of time-dependent turbulence phase screens is based on the well-known power spectral method and on the assumption that the temporal evolution is mainly caused by wind driven propagation of frozen-in turbulence across the telescope. To analyze the seeing induced cross-talk between the Stokes parameters we consider polarization modulation scheme based on a continuously rotating waveplate with rotation frequencies between 1 Hz and several 100 Hz. Further, we have started the development of a new fast solar imaging polarimeter, based on pnCCD detector technology from PNSensor. The first detector will have a size of 264 x 264 pixels and will work at frame rates of up to 1kHz, combined with a very low readout noise of 2-3 e- ENC. The camera readout electronics will allow for buffering and accumulation of images corresponding to the different phases of the fast polarization modulation. A high write-out rate (about 30 to 50 frames/s) will allow for post-facto image reconstruction. We will present the concept and the expected performance of the new polarimeter, based on the above-mentioned simulations of atmospheric seeing. © 2011 Copyright Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

Max Planck Gesellschaft Zur Foerderung Der Wissenschaften E.V. and Pnsensor Gmbh | Date: 2011-08-26

The invention concerns a radiation entry window (10) for a radiation detector (2), in particular for a semiconductor drift detector (2), with a flat window element (11), which is at least partially permeable for the radiation to be detected by the radiation detector (2), as well as with a window frame (12), which laterally frames the window element (11), wherein the window frame (12) consists of a semiconductor material and is considerably thicker than the window element (11).

PNSensor GmbH | Date: 2016-06-15

The present invention relates to a semiconductor drift detector with a fully depleted semiconductor substrate, a first and second radiation entrance window, a sensitive volume, a read out contact and a plurality of drift elements. At least one drift element or alternatively some or alternatively all drift elements of the plurality of drift elements do not entirely surround the read out contact, respectively. A single read out contact may be used and the detector is configured to drive all signal charge carriers which are generated in the sensitive volume of the substrate towards the single read out contact. The electrical connections originating from the read out contact towards the read out electronics or towards the bond pads are provided in such a way that they do not spatially cross high voltage carrying drift elements or gaps between them along their extension on the sensor. In an embodiment, said electrical connections do not spatially cross more than one or any drift element.

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