Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Pmas Arid Agriculture University

Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi is in Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan. In the 1970s, the government of Punjab established an agricultural college in Rawalpindi for the development of rain-fed agriculture. The college was upgraded to the level of university in 1994. The university is currently ranked at No. 2 in Agriculture/Veterinary category as per the HEC and 7th overall in ranking of universities in Pakistan. Arid Agriculture University offers a number of degree programmes leading to Bachelor, Master and Ph.D. in disciplines including Food Science & Technology, Computer science, Management science, Pure science, Agriculture, Veterinary & Animal science, Social science and other Arts and Fine Arts programs.The university is in Rawalpindi, almost in the center of the twin cosmopolitan cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, the capital of the country. These beautiful cities are the foothills with a blend of old and new cultures and constructions. Wikipedia.

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Babar M.I.,International Islamic University, Islamabad | Ramzan M.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University
Proceedings - International Conference on Computer Networks and Information Technology | Year: 2011

The right requirements are considered as a part and parcel of software quality. Since the emergence of software engineering the perfect requirements have a deeper effect on the overall quality of software systems. This research paper is focusing on the shortcomings or limitations of existing software requirements prioritization techniques and paves the way for researchers to explore new horizons in software requirements prioritization. Most of the techniques are solving the plight of small projects or toy applications. There is not a single evidence of a successful prioritization technique that would solve the problem of large set of requirements. The innovative requirements prioritization approaches are required for systems where user requirements increase in hundreds and even in thousands. The existing techniques are not providing sufficient automation for such systems due to their certain limitations. © 2011 IEEE.

Aziz I.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Mahmood T.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Islam K.R.,Ohio State University | Islam K.R.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Soil and Tillage Research | Year: 2013

Management systems influence soil quality over time. A randomized block design in 2 (tillage system). ×. 3 (crop rotation) factorial arrangement was laid-out to evaluate the impact of tillage and crop rotation (2002-2007) on soil quality. Conventional tillage and No-till were factored into continuous corn, corn-soybean, and corn-soybean-wheat-Cowpea systems. Ten soil cores were collected at 0-7.5, 7.5-15, 15-22.5 and 22.5-30. cm depths and analyzed for biological, chemical and physical parameters. The inductive additive approach was used to calculate biological, chemical, physical and composite soil quality indices. A significant impact of no tillage on different physical chemical and biological parameters was observed. The estimated soil quality index was significantly higher in soil under No-till than conventional tillage. Soil biological quality is a sensitive and consistent indicator of soil quality in response to management practices. © 2013.

Khalid A.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Arshad M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Anjum M.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Mahmood T.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Dawson L.,James Hutton Institute
Waste Management | Year: 2011

The accumulation of solid organic waste is thought to be reaching critical levels in almost all regions of the world. These organic wastes require to be managed in a sustainable way to avoid depletion of natural resources, minimize risk to human health, reduce environmental burdens and maintain an overall balance in the ecosystem. A number of methods are currently applied to the treatment and management of solid organic waste. This review focuses on the process of anaerobic digestion which is considered to be one of the most viable options for recycling the organic fraction of solid waste. This manuscript provides a broad overview of the digestibility and energy production (biogas) yield of a range of substrates and the digester configurations that achieve these yields. The involvement of a diverse array of microorganisms and effects of co-substrates and environmental factors on the efficiency of the process has been comprehensively addressed. The recent literature indicates that anaerobic digestion could be an appealing option for converting raw solid organic wastes into useful products such as biogas and other energy-rich compounds, which may play a critical role in meeting the world's ever-increasing energy requirements in the future. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Mukhtar T.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Kayani M.Z.,Green Belt Project | Hussain M.A.,Regional Agricultural Research Institute
Crop Protection | Year: 2013

Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are one of the most destructive pathogens of vegetables. The cultivars resistant to root-knot nematodes have comparatively better crop yield than susceptible varieties and can be employed as a component of integrated nematode management. In the present study, 15 cultivars of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) were tested for their response to Meloidogyne incognita by inoculating with 3000 2nd stage juveniles of the nematode. All cultivars varied significantly in causing reductions in growth parameters over their controls. Likewise, all cultivars behaved differently regarding formation of galls and egg masses and reproductive factor. It was found that none of the tested cultivars was found immune or highly resistant. Long Green was the only cultivar which was found resistant against M. incognita as it showed minimum galls (8.2) and reductions in growth parameters. On the other hand, cultivars Mehran, Mirage, Thamin-II, and Royal Sluis were highly susceptible as evident by maximum galls (>100) on their roots and reductions in growth parameters. Similarly, the cultivars Green Wonder, Cucumber Citriolo and Poinsett were moderately susceptible (31-70 galls) while Babylon, Cobra and Falcon-560 (71-100 galls) were susceptible and reductions in growth parameters of these cultivars were less than those in highly susceptible cultivars. Four cultivars, Marketmore, Dynasty, Pioneer-II, and Summer Green, were rated as moderately resistant (11-30 galls) as these cultivars showed less damage by the nematode than moderately susceptible, susceptible and highly susceptible cultivars. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Mukhtar T.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Kayani M.Z.,Green Belt Project | Hussain M.A.,Regional Agricultural Research Institute
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2013

Because of being costly and pernicious to the environment and human health, the use of nematicides has become prohibitive in many countries and the management of plant parasitic nematodes using antagonistic plants can be a very attractive alternative. In the present studies the effectiveness of aqueous extracts of Cannabis sativa and Zanthoxylum alatum was assessed on hatching, mortality and infectivity of Meloidogyne incognita at different concentrations viz. S, S:1, S:5, S:10, S:25, S:50 and S:100. Both the plants had significant effects on juvenile mortality and hatching inhibition in a dose-dependent manner. Mortality and hatching inhibition caused by C. sativa were significantly higher than that of Z. alatum. Time duration also affected mortality and hatching inhibition significantly. Significant inhibition in invasion of M. incognita juveniles on cucumber cv. Royal Sluis was observed by different treatments with extracts. M. incognita juveniles exposed to 'S' extracts of C. sativa and Z. alatum for 24 and 48. h caused no infection. Exposure for 12 and 6. h caused more than 95 and 90% reductions in infectivity of M. incognita juveniles respectively. Similarly, soil drench and root dip treatments also caused significant reductions in infection. Reduction in infectivity was found to be significantly higher with extracts of C. sativa as compared to Z. alatum and decreased in a dose-responsive manner. The results of the studies showed that the extracts of test plants, commonly found locally, possess high potentials for the control of root-knot nematodes and could be the possible replacement for synthetic nematicides. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Tareen M.J.,Agriculture Research Institute | Abbasi N.A.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Hafiz I.A.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Peach fruit has become very popular among stone fruits in Pakistan with increasing production. The main area of peach production in Pakistan is Swat, in the northern part of the country. Significant fruit losses occur during harvest temporary storing, and transport to market. Objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of salicylic acid (SA) at different concentrations (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0mmolL-1) on postharvest life of peach fruit (cv. 'Flordaking'). Fruits were treated with SA immediately after harvest and stored at 0°C for 5 weeks. Generally, all of the SA concentrations gave a higher activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) during five weeks of storage. The 2.0mmol SA concentrations showed the highest activity for enzymatic antioxidants. The fruit browning enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity decreased in SA treated fruits. SA treated fruits exhibited higher radical scavenging activity (RSA) than control fruits. The SA 2.0mmol concentration resulted in increased fruit weight, firmness, and decreased juice pH. The higher concentration of SA (2.0mmol) proved to be the most effective in keeping peach fruit quality intact along with maintained skin color and delayed fruit surface decay during storage. Conclusively amongst all treatments SA 2.0mmol application exhibited maximum antioxidants enzymatic activities, minimum weight loss, stored firmness and decreased pH during storage period. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Sandhu M.A.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University
European journal of histochemistry : EJH | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of somatotrophs and lactotrophs and conduct a morphometrical analysis of immunoreactive somatotrophs and lactotrophs in the pituitary glands of White Leghorn Hens (Gallus domesticus) during the period of induced moult. We divided the periods of induced moulting into three phases viz. 7, 14 and 21 days. The labeled alkaline-phsphatase method with anti-GH (growth hormone) and anti-PRL (prolactin) as a primary antibody was used to detect somatotrophs and lactotrophs, in the midsagital sections of chicken adenohypophysis. Immunohistochemistry showed that somatotrophs are not only confined to the cephalo-caudal axis but can also be found in the caudal lobe; while lactotrophs were distributed in both lobes of the anterior pituitary gland at all stages of moulting (7, 14 and 21 days). Lactotrophs were of different shapes but somatotrophs were oval to round in morphology. At the given stages of induced moulting, some hypertrophied lactotrophs were also present after 7 days of induced moult in the anterior pituitary gland. However, there were moulting-related changes: from 7 to 21 days of induced moulting the immunoreactive-PRL cell population decreased, while the mean lactotroph size was more than that of somatotrophs. Basic quantitative and morphological information relating to somatotrophs and lactotrophs during the period of induced moult in laying hens is reported here and the changes brought about by induced moulting are restricted to PRL positive cells rather than GH positive cells.

Abstract The objective of the present study was to prepare canola oil based vitamin E nanoemulsions by using food grade mixed surfactants (Tween:80 and lecithin; 3:1) to replace some concentration of nonionic surfactants (Tween 80) with natural surfactant (soya lecithin) and to optimize their preparation conditions. RBD (Refined, Bleached and Deodorized) canola oil and vitamin E acetate were used in water/vitamin E/oil/surfactant system due to their nutritional benefits and oxidative stability, respectively. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the preparation conditions. The effects of homogenization pressure (75-155 MPa), oil concentrations (4-12% w/w), surfactant concentrations (3-11% w/w) and vitamin E acetate contents (0.4-1.2% w/w) on the particle size and emulsion stability were studied. RSM analysis has shown that the experimental data could be fitted well into second-order polynomial model with the coefficient of determinations of 0.9464 and 0.9278 for particle size and emulsion stability, respectively. The optimum values of independent variables were 135 MPa homogenization pressure, 6.18% oil contents, 6.39% surfactant concentration and 1% vitamin E acetate concentration. The optimized response values for particle size and emulsion stability were 150.10 nm and 0.338, respectively. Whereas, the experimental values for particle size and nanoemulsion stability were 156.13 ± 2.3 nm and 0.328 ± 0.015, respectively. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Qureshi R.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to record medicinal use of native plants by the inhabitants of the study area. Thirty nine plant species belonging to 32 genera and 22 families were documented having medicinally important and are being used by the local people for treating their various diseases. Generally, 25 different ailments were treated from the reported species. Most of the reported taxa were used as tonic (13%), followed by diarrhea (9.2%), wound healing (7.41%), constipation, cooling agent, cough and throat pain (5.56% each). In addition, four plant species were used to treat fracture, stomach problems and fever of livestock. Fabaceae contributed significant number of species (7 spp.), followed by Asclepiadaceae, Asteraceae & Zygophyllaceae (3 spp. each), Capparaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Rhamnaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Tamaricaceae and Tiliaceae (2 spp. each), while 9 families represented by single species. For each species, botanical name, family, habit, local name, part(s) used and ethnomedicinal uses are provided in this paper.

Riaz Q.U.A.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Masud T.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2013

The importance of probiotics and their live delivery in the gastrointestinal tract has gained much importance in the recent past. Many reports have indicated that there is poor viability of probiotic bacteria in dairy based products, both fermented and non-fermented, and also in the human gastro-intestinal system is questionable. In this case, microencapsulation is the most significant emerging and efficient technology that is being used for the preservation of probiotics against adverse environmental conditions. Apart from different techniques of microencapsulation, various types of encapsulating materials are also used for the process, namely, alginate, chitosan, carrageenan, gums (locust bean, gellan gum, xanthan gum, etc.), gelatin, whey protein, starch, and compression coating. Each one of the encapsulating materials has its own unique characteristics of capsule formation and provision of shape, appearance, and strength to microbeads. The type of encapsulating material also influences the viability of probiotics during storage, processing, and in the gastrointestinal tract. The effectiveness of any material depends not upon its capsule forming capability, strength, and enhancing viability but also on its cheapness, availability, and biocompatibility. So, added convenience and reduced packaging costs may also be used to offset the cost of encapsulating one or more ingredients. Encapsulated forms of ingredients provide a longer shelf life for the product. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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