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Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi is in Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan. In the 1970s, the government of Punjab established an agricultural college in Rawalpindi for the development of rain-fed agriculture. The college was upgraded to the level of university in 1994. The university is currently ranked at No. 2 in Agriculture/Veterinary category as per the HEC and 7th overall in ranking of universities in Pakistan. Arid Agriculture University offers a number of degree programmes leading to Bachelor, Master and Ph.D. in disciplines including Food Science & Technology, Computer science, Management science, Pure science, Agriculture, Veterinary & Animal science, Social science and other Arts and Fine Arts programs.The university is in Rawalpindi, almost in the center of the twin cosmopolitan cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, the capital of the country. These beautiful cities are the foothills with a blend of old and new cultures and constructions. Wikipedia.

Abstract The objective of the present study was to prepare canola oil based vitamin E nanoemulsions by using food grade mixed surfactants (Tween:80 and lecithin; 3:1) to replace some concentration of nonionic surfactants (Tween 80) with natural surfactant (soya lecithin) and to optimize their preparation conditions. RBD (Refined, Bleached and Deodorized) canola oil and vitamin E acetate were used in water/vitamin E/oil/surfactant system due to their nutritional benefits and oxidative stability, respectively. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the preparation conditions. The effects of homogenization pressure (75-155 MPa), oil concentrations (4-12% w/w), surfactant concentrations (3-11% w/w) and vitamin E acetate contents (0.4-1.2% w/w) on the particle size and emulsion stability were studied. RSM analysis has shown that the experimental data could be fitted well into second-order polynomial model with the coefficient of determinations of 0.9464 and 0.9278 for particle size and emulsion stability, respectively. The optimum values of independent variables were 135 MPa homogenization pressure, 6.18% oil contents, 6.39% surfactant concentration and 1% vitamin E acetate concentration. The optimized response values for particle size and emulsion stability were 150.10 nm and 0.338, respectively. Whereas, the experimental values for particle size and nanoemulsion stability were 156.13 ± 2.3 nm and 0.328 ± 0.015, respectively. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Sandhu M.A.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University
European journal of histochemistry : EJH | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of somatotrophs and lactotrophs and conduct a morphometrical analysis of immunoreactive somatotrophs and lactotrophs in the pituitary glands of White Leghorn Hens (Gallus domesticus) during the period of induced moult. We divided the periods of induced moulting into three phases viz. 7, 14 and 21 days. The labeled alkaline-phsphatase method with anti-GH (growth hormone) and anti-PRL (prolactin) as a primary antibody was used to detect somatotrophs and lactotrophs, in the midsagital sections of chicken adenohypophysis. Immunohistochemistry showed that somatotrophs are not only confined to the cephalo-caudal axis but can also be found in the caudal lobe; while lactotrophs were distributed in both lobes of the anterior pituitary gland at all stages of moulting (7, 14 and 21 days). Lactotrophs were of different shapes but somatotrophs were oval to round in morphology. At the given stages of induced moulting, some hypertrophied lactotrophs were also present after 7 days of induced moult in the anterior pituitary gland. However, there were moulting-related changes: from 7 to 21 days of induced moulting the immunoreactive-PRL cell population decreased, while the mean lactotroph size was more than that of somatotrophs. Basic quantitative and morphological information relating to somatotrophs and lactotrophs during the period of induced moult in laying hens is reported here and the changes brought about by induced moulting are restricted to PRL positive cells rather than GH positive cells. Source

Syed M.A.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Pervaiz S.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University
Oligonucleotides | Year: 2010

Aptamers are nucleic acid sequences synthesized through in vitro selection and amplification technique, possessing a broader range of applications in therapeutics, biosensing, diagnostics, and research. Aptamers offer a number of advantages over their antibodies counterpart, one of them is their ability to undergo chemical derivatization to increase their life in the body fluids and bioavailability in animals. Although aptamers were discovered in 1990s, they have become one of the most widely investigated molecules, with a huge number of publications in the last decade. This article presents an overview of the advancements that have been made in aptamers. We mainly focused on articles published since 2005. © 2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Qureshi R.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to record medicinal use of native plants by the inhabitants of the study area. Thirty nine plant species belonging to 32 genera and 22 families were documented having medicinally important and are being used by the local people for treating their various diseases. Generally, 25 different ailments were treated from the reported species. Most of the reported taxa were used as tonic (13%), followed by diarrhea (9.2%), wound healing (7.41%), constipation, cooling agent, cough and throat pain (5.56% each). In addition, four plant species were used to treat fracture, stomach problems and fever of livestock. Fabaceae contributed significant number of species (7 spp.), followed by Asclepiadaceae, Asteraceae & Zygophyllaceae (3 spp. each), Capparaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Rhamnaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Tamaricaceae and Tiliaceae (2 spp. each), while 9 families represented by single species. For each species, botanical name, family, habit, local name, part(s) used and ethnomedicinal uses are provided in this paper. Source

Mukhtar T.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Kayani M.Z.,Green Belt Project | Hussain M.A.,Regional Agricultural Research Institute
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2013

Because of being costly and pernicious to the environment and human health, the use of nematicides has become prohibitive in many countries and the management of plant parasitic nematodes using antagonistic plants can be a very attractive alternative. In the present studies the effectiveness of aqueous extracts of Cannabis sativa and Zanthoxylum alatum was assessed on hatching, mortality and infectivity of Meloidogyne incognita at different concentrations viz. S, S:1, S:5, S:10, S:25, S:50 and S:100. Both the plants had significant effects on juvenile mortality and hatching inhibition in a dose-dependent manner. Mortality and hatching inhibition caused by C. sativa were significantly higher than that of Z. alatum. Time duration also affected mortality and hatching inhibition significantly. Significant inhibition in invasion of M. incognita juveniles on cucumber cv. Royal Sluis was observed by different treatments with extracts. M. incognita juveniles exposed to 'S' extracts of C. sativa and Z. alatum for 24 and 48. h caused no infection. Exposure for 12 and 6. h caused more than 95 and 90% reductions in infectivity of M. incognita juveniles respectively. Similarly, soil drench and root dip treatments also caused significant reductions in infection. Reduction in infectivity was found to be significantly higher with extracts of C. sativa as compared to Z. alatum and decreased in a dose-responsive manner. The results of the studies showed that the extracts of test plants, commonly found locally, possess high potentials for the control of root-knot nematodes and could be the possible replacement for synthetic nematicides. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

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