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Plymouth, United Kingdom

Plymouth Marine Laboratory in the city of Plymouth, England is an independent collaborative centre of the Natural Environment Research Council . PML's Chairman is Terence Lewis and PML's Chief Executive is Prof. Stephen de Mora.They focus global issues of global warming and sustainability. They monitor the effects of ocean acidity on corals and shellfish and report this information to the UK government. It also cultivates algae that could be used to make biofuels or in the treatment of waste water by using technology such as photo-bioreactors. They work alongside the Boots Group to investigate the usage of algae in skin care protects, because of their content of compounds that adapt to protect themselves from the sun.PML has a wholly owned trading subsidiary, PML Applications Ltd, which has been created to facilitate the exploitation and application of PML research and its products and to provide a more appropriate interface for working with end users, industrial and commercial partners.Core Capabilities:Biogeochemistry and systems science, Health of the environment and human health, Sustainable ecosystems and biodiversityCross-cutting capabilities:Earth observation, Modelling, Microbial ecology, Molecular science, Blue biotechnology, Technical solutions, Socio-economics, Policy advice Wikipedia.

Carpenter L.J.,University of York | Archer S.D.,Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences | Beale R.,Plymouth Marine Laboratory
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012

The oceans contribute significantly to the global emissions of a number of atmospherically important volatile gases, notably those containing sulfur, nitrogen and halogens. Such gases play critical roles not only in global biogeochemical cycling but also in a wide range of atmospheric processes including marine aerosol formation and modification, tropospheric ozone formation and destruction, photooxidant cycling and stratospheric ozone loss. A number of marine emissions are greenhouse gases, others influence the Earth's radiative budget indirectly through aerosol formation and/or by modifying oxidant levels and thus changing the atmospheric lifetime of gases such as methane. In this article we review current literature concerning the physical, chemical and biological controls on the sea-air emissions of a wide range of gases including dimethyl sulphide (DMS), halocarbons, nitrogen-containing gases including ammonia (NH3), amines (including dimethylamine, DMA, and diethylamine, DEA), alkyl nitrates (RONO2) and nitrous oxide (N 2O), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) including isoprene and oxygenated (O)VOCs, methane (CH4) and carbon monoxide (CO). Where possible we review the current global emission budgets of these gases as well as known mechanisms for their formation and loss in the surface ocean. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.

Marine surface waters are being acidified due to uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide, resulting in surface ocean areas of undersaturation with respect to carbonate minerals, including aragonite. In the Arctic Ocean, acidification is expected to occur at an accelerated rate with respect to the global oceans, but a paucity of baseline data has limited our understanding of the extent of Arctic undersaturation and of regional variations in rates and causes. The lack of data has also hindered refinement of models aimed at projecting future trends of ocean acidification. Here, based on more than 34,000 data records collected in 2010 and 2011, we establish a baseline of inorganic carbon data (pH, total alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and aragonite saturation index) for the western Arctic Ocean. This data set documents aragonite undersaturation in ≈ 20% of the surface waters of the combined Canada and Makarov basins, an area characterized by recent acceleration of sea ice loss. Conservative tracer studies using stable oxygen isotopic data from 307 sites show that while the entire surface of this area receives abundant freshwater from meteoric sources, freshwater from sea ice melt is most closely linked to the areas of carbonate mineral undersaturation. These data link the Arctic Ocean's largest area of aragonite undersaturation to sea ice melt and atmospheric CO2 absorption in areas of low buffering capacity. Some relatively supersaturated areas can be linked to localized biological activity. Collectively, these observations can be used to project trends of ocean acidification in higher latitude marine surface waters where inorganic carbon chemistry is largely influenced by sea ice meltwater.

Smyth T.J.,Plymouth Marine Laboratory
Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans | Year: 2011

A new global ocean-atmosphere model has been developed to determine the penetration of ultraviolet (UV) radiation through the water column. This is accomplished by combining an atmospheric UV irradiance model, taking into consideration the effects of aerosols, clouds, and the air-sea interface, with empirical in-water diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd( UV)) relationships. These empirical relationships are derived from simultaneous in situ profiles of visible wavelength inherent optical properties and downwelling UV irradiances. The combined model is applied to global data sets using a look-up table approach to speed up calculation time. The atmospheric model compared against ∼3000 data points gave a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of between 10% and 15% at wavelengths of 305, 325, 340, and 380 nm; the coupled global model compared against 30 independent in-water irradiance profiles gave a logarithmic RMSE of between 0.15 and 0.35 at these wavelengths. On the global scale the 10% irradiance levels were found to be deepest in the oceanic gyres (∼18, 32, 44, and 70 m at 305, 325, 340 and 380 nm, respectively) and shallowest in the optically complex continental shelf regions. The calculated UV doses were shown to be spectrally and seasonally variable, with the highest values being encountered in the eastern Mediterranean during July, with values of ∼0.5, 4, 7, and 10 kJ m-2 d-1 nm-1 at 305, 325, 340, and 380 nm, respectively. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

Blackford J.C.,Plymouth Marine Laboratory
Journal of Marine Systems | Year: 2010

Predicting the impacts of Ocean Acidification is a science and societal priority for which modelling approaches provide an important methodology. Marine system responses to ocean acidification are complex and involve several mechanisms which impact a variety of marine processes and trophic interactions. Ecosystem evolution over the next decades will be driven by many factors including ocean acidification, climate change and modification to fishing pressures, pollution and eutrophication. It is proposed that a policy relevant ecosystem approach to ocean acidification requires a synergistic consideration of both the complexity of drivers and the complexity of responses, posing a significant challenge to existing model systems. Whilst current modelling approaches can make valuable contributions to predictive science, it is argued that developing methodologies including a hierarchy of simple and complex models and novel model paradigm, provides the optimal strategy for improving predictive capability. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SFS-11b-2015 | Award Amount: 6.92M | Year: 2016

Aquaculture is one of five sectors in the EUs Blue Growth Strategy, aimed at harnessing untapped potential for food production and jobs whilst focusing on environmental sustainability. TAPAS addresses this challenge by supporting member states to establish a coherent and efficient regulatory framework aimed at sustainable growth. TAPAS will use a requirements analysis to evaluate existing regulatory and licensing frameworks across the EU, taking account of the range of production environments and specificities and emerging approaches such as offshore technologies, integrated multi-trophic aquaculture, and integration with other sectors. We will propose new, flexible approaches to open methods of coordination, working to unified, common standards. TAPAS will also evaluate existing tools for economic assessment of aquaculture sustainability affecting sectoral growth. TAPAS will critically evaluate the capabilities and verification level of existing ecosystem planning tools and will develop new approaches for evaluation of carrying capacities, environmental impact and future risk. TAPAS will improve existing and develop new models for far- and near-field environmental assessment providing better monitoring, observation, forecasting and early warning technologies. The innovative methodologies and components emerging from TAPAS will be integrated in an Aquaculture Sustainability Toolbox complemented by a decision support system to support the development and implementation of coastal and marine spatial planning enabling less costly, more transparent and more efficient licensing. TAPAS partners will collaborate with key industry regulators and certifiers through case studies to ensure the acceptability and utility of project approach and outcomes. Training, dissemination and outreach activities will specifically target improvement of the image of European aquaculture and uptake of outputs by regulators, while promoting an integrated sustainable strategy for development.

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