Plymouth, United Kingdom
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Hayes G.E.,Plymouth Hospitals NHS Trust | Denning D.W.,University of Manchester
Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine | Year: 2013

Purpose of review: This review highlights key recent advances in fungal respiratory infections, encompassing developments in epidemiology, diagnostics and management, focussing on Aspergillus, Pneumocystis and Cryptococcus as key pathogens. Recent findings: Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis complicates existing lung diseases, particularly those associated with cavities or bullae, with a high global disease burden (prevalence estimate >1.1 million following tuberculosis) and significant under diagnosis (using Aspergillus IgG antibody). Several new treatment studies have been published (using caspofungin and voriconazole). Pneumocystis jirovecii demonstrates airborne transmission between infected and noninfected individuals necessitating isolation, and possibly identifying colonized patients. Early detection of serum cryptococcal antigenaemia in HIV may prevent development of meningitis, reducing morbidity and mortality, and routine testing of serum in communityacquired pneumonia cases in high endemicity areas may be helpful. Respiratory Aspergillus antigen and PCR testing is more sensitive than culture or serum testing. A new lateral flow antigen testing device may provide rapid bedside diagnosis of aspergillosis. Azole resistance to Aspergillus fumigatus is increasing across Europe. Summary: The field of fungal respiratory infection continues to evolve and develop, with many recent key advances. Patients, and possibly colonized patients, with Pneumocystis require isolation in hospitals and preferably segregation in outpatients. Challenges remain in almost all areas, with further work needed to identify the true burden of Aspergillus disease and address the increasing problem of azole resistance. Copyright © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Akoh J.A.,Plymouth Hospitals NHS Trust
Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia | Year: 2015

Transplant nephrectomy (TN) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality and influences the outcome of subsequent renal transplantation. The aim of this study was to identify the reasons for TN in a single transplant center in the United Kingdom and to determine the complication rate, effect on relisting and re-transplantation. We studied all the TNs in our center from January 2000 to December 2011. Detailed information including cause of allograft failure and reason for TN were analyzed. Of 602 renal transplants performed at our center during the period of the study, 42 TNs were performed on 38 (6%) patients (24 men and 14 women). The median age of the patients at the time of transplantation who subsequently underwent TN was 56 years (range: 28-73 years) and 71% of the allografts were donated after circulatory death. The mean human leucocyte antigen mismatch for these patients was 2.3. The most commonly used immunosuppression was a combination of prednisolone, mycophenolate and tacrolimus, which was used in 50% of the patients. Twenty-five (60%) of the TNs in this series were for allografts failing during the first month of transplantation. The most common indication for the TN was graft thrombosis (50%), with an overall in-hospital mortality rate of 9.5% and a morbidity rate of 31%. Seven of 19 patients listed underwent successful re-transplantation. Although TN is associated with a risk of significant morbidity and mortality, it does not preclude from listing for re-transplantation. The difficulty of access to complete information about transplant failures and TN highlights the need for a national registry.


Akoh J.A.,Plymouth Hospitals NHS Trust
Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia | Year: 2013

Previous reports regarding donation after cardiac death (DCD) have called for caution in extending the age of kidney donors beyond 60 years due to the risk of poor graft function. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of donor age on renal transplantation from DCD in one center. All DCD transplants from 2005 to 2009 were included in the study. Immunosuppression and recipient follow-up were as per unit protocol. Donor and recipient details were entered prospectively into a renal database and analyzed for graft outcome. Of the 147 renal transplants, 102 were from donors <60 years old and 45 were from donors ≥60 years old. The incidence of delayed graft function varied significantly according to donor-recipient age groups (P = 0.01). The mean glomerular filtration rate at 12 months was 50.3 mL/min for transplants from young donors compared with 39.3 mL/min for transplants from old donors (P = 0.001). The cumulative graft survival rates at 1 and 5 years were 88% and 79% for young donors, while for old donors these were 78% and 72%, respectively (P = 0.101). By transplanting kidneys from old DCD donors into elderly patients, their survival is improved compared with dialysis, and organs from younger donors are made available for younger recipients.


Akoh J.A.,Plymouth Hospitals NHS Trust
Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia | Year: 2011

Patients with established renal failure, living in developing countries, face many obstacles including lack of access to transplantation centers, quality and safety issues, and exploittation associated with transplant tourism. This review aims to determine the state and outcome of renal transplantation performed in developing countries and to recommend some solutions. The lack of suitable legislation and infrastructure has prevented growth of deceased donor programs; so, living donors have continued to be the major source of transplantable kidneys. Transplant tourism and commercial kidney transplants are associated with a high incidence of surgical complications, acute rejection and invasive infection, which cause major morbidity and mortality. Developing transplant services worldwide has many benefits - improving the results of transplantation as they would be performed legally, increasing the donor pool, making transplant tourism unnecessary and granting various governments the moral courage to fight unacceptable practices. A private-public partnership underpinned by transparency, public audit and accountability is a prerequisite for effective transplant services in the developing world. Finally, lack of dialysis facilities coupled with better outcomes in patients spending <6 months on dialysis prior to transplantation favor pre-emptive transplantation in developing countries.


Warwick Z.,Plymouth Hospitals NHS Trust
International Journal of STD and AIDS | Year: 2010

A survey of consultants in Plymouth Teaching Hospital was performed to identify barriers to HIV testing in secondary care. Testing practices were compared with those recommended by the UK HIV testing guidelines and barriers to testing described.


Sahu A.,Plymouth Hospitals NHS Trust
Hand surgery : an international journal devoted to hand and upper limb surgery and related research : journal of the Asia-Pacific Federation of Societies for Surgery of the Hand | Year: 2012

Little finger metacarpal fractures are the most common type of metacarpal fractures and the treatment is quite variable as it is a multifactorial entity comprised of subcapital, metacarpal shaft and base fractures. These fractures are common presentations in the fracture clinics and the general orthopaedic surgeons treat them until a complex case warrants specific decision making by a hand surgeon. The management of many of these fractures is still a matter of debate and differ widely in the various parts of the United Kingdom. The aim of this study was to investigate the current practice of little finger metacarpal fractures among upper limb surgeons in the UK. We conducted an online survey among 278 upper limb orthopaedic specialist surgeons throughout the UK. Our response rate was 58%. There are various factors which dictate the treatment as suggested by these respondent upper limb consultants. For example, for fifth metacarpal neck fractures, it was generally recognised that 43% of upper limb surgeons prefer neighbour strapping alone for non-operative management of little finger metacarpal fractures. For little finger metacarpal shaft fractures, 39.3% of surgeons suggested that they would contemplate intervention, i.e. manipulation under anaesthesia/surgery if beyond 30° of volar angulation is present. For little finger metacarpal neck fractures, 33.7% would only consider surgical intervention beyond 60° of volar angulation. 91.6% of upper limb specialists agreed that they would operate on little finger metacarpal base fractures only if it was a fracture dislocation, while 71.8% suggested that they would proceed to operate on even a pure dislocation. We have illustrated the various permutations and combinations of these fractures with the results of our survey in this article in detail. The vast majority of metacarpal bone fractures are stable and treated conservatively. The different types of injury patterns must be recognised by the orthopaedic surgeons and appropriate treatment then should be executed to serve the patient optimally in due course.


Akoh J.A.,Plymouth Hospitals NHS Trust
Current Infectious Disease Reports | Year: 2011

Infection is the most challenging and life-threatening complication of vascular access and causes significant morbidity, loss of access, and mortality. The aims of this review are to determine the magnitude of the infection problem, identify possible factors, and provide an update on the management of vascular access infections. Infections account for approximately 15% to 36% of all deaths in dialysis patients (the second leading cause after cardiovascular events) and for about 20% of admissions. Several studies demonstrate a hierarchy of infection risk from temporary catheter, tunnelled cuffed catheter, arteriovenous grafts, to arteriovenous fistula in decreasing order. Suspicion of infection must be followed by appropriate blood cultures, including possible simultaneous sampling from a peripheral vein and the access. The best way to treat vascular access infection is prevention, bearing in mind the idea "fistula first" and "lines last", with the appropriate use of arteriovenous grafts and newer devices sandwiched in between. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Rockett M.,Plymouth Hospitals NHS Trust
Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology | Year: 2014

Purpose of review: The incidence and disease course of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) has been unclear until recently. This was due to inconsistent diagnostic criteria used in previous studies and a lack of large-scale prospective datasets. Multiple mechanisms of CRPS have been suggested, and recent research has begun to explain how inflammation, the immune system and the autonomic nervous system may interact with aberrant central neuroplasticity to produce the clinical picture. This review summarizes progress in these fields. Recent findings: National registries of patients with CRPS have provided us with an invaluable insight into the epidemiology of the disorder. We now have a better understanding of the disease course and expected outcome. Widespread sensory abnormalities, not limited to the CRPS limb, have been found suggesting that systemic changes may occur. Parietal lobe dysfunction and problems with sensory-motor integration have also been revealed. Abnormalities in the immune system in CRPS have also been demonstrated. Summary: Recent findings: in diverse research fields suggest novel treatment options for CRPS: from targeting autoimmunity to correcting abnormal body image. Many of the advances in our understanding of CRPS have arisen from the development of collaborative research efforts, such as the TREND group in the Netherlands. Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Freeman R.M.,Plymouth Hospitals NHS Trust
Maturitas | Year: 2010

The exact success rate from conventional as well as new surgical procedures for pelvic organ prolapse is unknown possibly due to the lack of standardisation of outcome measures. Usually objective measures, e.g. Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POPQ) assessment have been used as the primary outcome in most studies which show that procedures such as anterior repair have a poor outcome. However these outcomes correlate poorly with subjective assessment and re-operation rates are lower than the anatomical failure rate suggesting that conventional surgery might not have as poor an outcome as previously suggested. Nonetheless, new procedures have been introduced for which efficacy and safety data are required via well conducted randomised controlled trials. © 2009.


Patent
Plymouth Hospitals Nhs Trust | Date: 2012-05-14

An episiotomy scissors (2) for use in conducting an episiotomy on a subject is provided, the scissors comprising a pair of pivotably connected scissor members; (4a, 4b) each scissor member comprising a handle (6a, 6b) extending in a proximal direction from the pivot connection and a blade (8a, 8b) extending in a distal direction from the pivot connection; and a guide member (20) mounted to a scissor member and having a guide surface (22a, 22b) extending in a distal direction from the scissor member at an acute angle to the longitudinal axis of the blade of the scissor member.

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