Plateforme de Genomique

Paris, France

Plateforme de Genomique

Paris, France

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Thomas S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Thomas S.,University of Paris Descartes | Legendre M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Saunier S.,University of Paris Descartes | And 30 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2012

Orofaciodigital syndromes (OFDSs) consist of a group of heterogeneous disorders characterized by abnormalities in the oral cavity, face, and digits and associated phenotypic abnormalities that lead to the delineation of 13 OFDS subtypes. Here, by a combined approach of homozygozity mapping and exome ciliary sequencing, we identified truncating TCTN3 mutations as the cause of an extreme form of OFD associated with bone dysplasia, tibial defect, cystic kidneys, and brain anomalies (OFD IV, Mohr-Majewski syndrome). Analysis of 184 individuals with various ciliopathies (OFD, Meckel, Joubert, and short rib polydactyly syndromes) led us to identify four additional truncating TCTN3 mutations in unrelated fetal cases with overlapping Meckel and OFD IV syndromes and one homozygous missense mutation in a family with Joubert syndrome. By exploring roles of TCTN3 in human ciliary related functions, we found that TCTN3 is necessary for transduction of the sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway, as revealed by abnormal processing of GLI3 in patient cells. These results are consistent with the suggested role of its murine ortholog, which forms a complex at the ciliary transition zone with TCTN1 and TCTN2, both of which are also implicated in the transduction of SHH signaling. Overall, our data show the involvement of the transition zone protein TCTN3 in the regulation of the key SHH signaling pathway and that its disruption causes a severe form of ciliopathy, combining features of Meckel and OFD IV syndromes. © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics.


Vuillaumier-Barrot S.,Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris | Vuillaumier-Barrot S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Bouchet-Seraphin C.,Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris | Chelbi M.,Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris | And 29 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2012

Cobblestone lissencephaly is a peculiar brain malformation with characteristic radiological anomalies. It is defined as cortical dysplasia that results when neuroglial overmigration into the arachnoid space forms an extracortical layer that produces agyria and/or a "cobblestone" brain surface and ventricular enlargement. Cobblestone lissencephaly is pathognomonic of a continuum of autosomal-recessive diseases characterized by cerebral, ocular, and muscular deficits. These include Walker-Warburg syndrome, muscle-eye-brain disease, and Fukuyama muscular dystrophy. Mutations in POMT1, POMT2, POMGNT1, LARGE, FKTN, and FKRP identified these diseases as alpha-dystroglycanopathies. Our exhaustive screening of these six genes, in a cohort of 90 fetal cases, led to the identification of a mutation in only 53% of the families, suggesting that other genes might also be involved. We therefore decided to perform a genome-wide study in two multiplex families. This allowed us to identify two additional genes: TMEM5 and ISPD. Because TMEM has a glycosyltransferase domain and ISPD has an isoprenoid synthase domain characteristic of nucleotide diP-sugar transferases, these two proteins are thought to be involved in the glycosylation of dystroglycan. Further screening of 40 families with cobblestone lissencephaly identified nonsense and frameshift mutations in another four unrelated cases for each gene, increasing the mutational rate to 64% in our cohort. All these cases displayed a severe phenotype of cobblestone lissencephaly A. TMEM5 mutations were frequently associated with gonadal dysgenesis and neural tube defects, and ISPD mutations were frequently associated with brain vascular anomalies. © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics.


Thomas S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Thomas S.,University of Paris Descartes | Encha-Razavi F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Encha-Razavi F.,University of Paris Descartes | And 36 more authors.
Human Mutation | Year: 2010

Rare lethal disease gene identification remains a challenging issue, but it is amenable to new techniques in high-throughput sequencing (HTS). Cerebral proliferative glomeruloid vasculopathy (PGV), or Fowler syndrome, is a severe autosomal recessive disorder of brain angiogenesis, resulting in abnormally thickened and aberrant perforating vessels leading to hydranencephaly. In three multiplex consanguineous families, genome-wide SNP analysis identified a locus of 14Mb on chromosome 14. In addition, 280 consecutive SNPs were identical in two Turkish families unknown to be related, suggesting a founder mutation reducing the interval to 4.1Mb. To identify the causative gene, we then specifically enriched for this region with sequence capture and performed HTS in a proband of seven families. Due to technical constraints related to the disease, the average coverage was only 7×. Nonetheless, iterative bioinformatic analyses of the sequence data identified mutations and a large deletion in the FLVCR2 gene, encoding a 12 transmembrane domain-containing putative transporter. A striking absence of alpha-smooth muscle actin immunostaining in abnormal vessels in fetal PGV brains, suggests a deficit in pericytes, cells essential for capillary stabilization and remodeling during brain angiogenesis. This is the first lethal disease-causing gene to be identified by comprehensive HTS of an entire linkage interval. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


Bui C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Huber C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Tuysuz B.,Istanbul University | Alanay Y.,Acibadem University | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2014

Desbuquois dysplasia (DBQD) is a severe condition characterized by short stature, joint laxity, and advanced carpal ossification. Based on the presence of additional hand anomalies, we have previously distinguished DBQD type 1 and identified CANT1 (calcium activated nucleotidase 1) mutations as responsible for DBQD type 1. We report here the identification of five distinct homozygous xylosyltransferase 1 (XYLT1) mutations in seven DBQD type 2 subjects from six consanguineous families. Among the five mutations, four were expected to result in loss of function and a drastic reduction of XYLT1 cDNA level was demonstrated in two cultured individual fibroblasts. Because xylosyltransferase 1 (XT-I) catalyzes the very first step in proteoglycan (PG) biosynthesis, we further demonstrated in the two individual fibroblasts a significant reduction of cellular PG content. Our findings of XYLT1 mutations in DBQD type 2 further support a common physiological basis involving PG synthesis in the multiple dislocation group of disorders. This observation sheds light on the key role of the XT-I during the ossification process. © 2014 The American Society of Human Genetics.


PubMed | University of Paris Descartes, University of Antwerp, Istanbul University, Plateforme de Genomique and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of human genetics | Year: 2014

Desbuquois dysplasia (DBQD) is a severe condition characterized by short stature, joint laxity, and advanced carpal ossification. Based on the presence of additional hand anomalies, we have previously distinguished DBQD type 1 and identified CANT1 (calcium activated nucleotidase 1) mutations as responsible for DBQD type 1. We report here the identification of five distinct homozygous xylosyltransferase 1 (XYLT1) mutations in seven DBQD type 2 subjects from six consanguineous families. Among the five mutations, four were expected to result in loss of function and a drastic reduction of XYLT1 cDNA level was demonstrated in two cultured individual fibroblasts. Because xylosyltransferase 1 (XT-I) catalyzes the very first step in proteoglycan (PG) biosynthesis, we further demonstrated in the two individual fibroblasts a significant reduction of cellular PG content. Our findings of XYLT1 mutations in DBQD type 2 further support a common physiological basis involving PG synthesis in the multiple dislocation group of disorders. This observation sheds light on the key role of the XT-I during the ossification process.


Huber C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Faqeih E.A.,Childrens Hospital | Bartholdi D.,University of Zürich | Bole-Feysot C.,Plateforme de Genomique | And 12 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2013

Opsismodysplasia (OPS) is a severe autosomal-recessive chondrodysplasia characterized by pre- and postnatal micromelia with extremely short hands and feet. The main radiological features are severe platyspondyly, squared metacarpals, delayed skeletal ossification, and metaphyseal cupping. In order to identify mutations causing OPS, a total of 16 cases (7 terminated pregnancies and 9 postnatal cases) from 10 unrelated families were included in this study. We performed exome sequencing in three cases from three unrelated families and only one gene was found to harbor mutations in all three cases: inositol polyphosphate phosphatase-like 1 (INPPL1). Screening INPPL1 in the remaining cases identified a total of 12 distinct INPPL1 mutations in the 10 families, present at the homozygote state in 7 consanguinous families and at the compound heterozygote state in the 3 remaining families. Most mutations (6/12) resulted in premature stop codons, 2/12 were splice site, and 4/12 were missense mutations located in the catalytic domain, 5-phosphatase. INPPL1 belongs to the inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate 5-phosphatase family, a family of signal-modulating enzymes that govern a plethora of cellular functions by regulating the levels of specific phosphoinositides. Our finding of INPPL1 mutations in OPS, a severe spondylodysplastic dysplasia with major growth plate disorganization, supports a key and specific role of this enzyme in endochondral ossification. © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics.


McInerney-Leo A.M.,Queensland University of Technology | McInerney-Leo A.M.,University of Queensland | Goff C.L.,Paris-Sorbonne University | Leo P.J.,Queensland University of Technology | And 18 more authors.
Journal of Medical Genetics | Year: 2016

Background Acromelic dysplasias are a group of disorders characterised by short stature, brachydactyly, limited joint extension and thickened skin and comprises acromicric dysplasia (AD), geleophysic dysplasia (GD), Myhre syndrome and Weill-Marchesani syndrome. Mutations in several genes have been identified for these disorders (including latent transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß)-binding protein-2 (LTBP2), ADAMTS10, ADAMSTS17 and fibrillin-1 (FBN1) for Weill-Marchesani syndrome, ADAMTSL2 for recessive GD and FBN1 for AD and dominant GD), encoding proteins involved in the microfibrillar network. However, not all cases have mutations in these genes. Methods Individuals negative for mutations in known acromelic dysplasia genes underwent whole exome sequencing. Results A heterozygous missense mutation (exon 14: c.2087C>G: p.Ser696Cys) in latent transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß)-binding protein-3 (LTBP3) was identified in a dominant AD family. Two distinct de novo heterozygous LTPB3 mutations were also identified in two unrelated GD individuals who had died in early childhood from respiratory failure-a donor splice site mutation (exon 12 c.1846+5G>A) and a stop-loss mutation (exon 28: c.3912A>T: p.1304*Cysext*12). Conclusions The constellation of features in these AD and GD cases, including postnatal growth retardation of long bones and lung involvement, is reminiscent of the null ltbp3 mice phenotype. We conclude that LTBP3 is a novel component of the microfibrillar network involved in the acromelic dysplasia spectrum. © 2016 by the BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.


Willemsen M.H.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Valles A.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Valles A.,Maastricht University | Kirkels L.A.M.H.,Radboud University Nijmegen | And 16 more authors.
Journal of Medical Genetics | Year: 2011

Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding gene transcripts involved in post-transcriptional regulation of genes. Recent studies identified miRNAs as important regulators of learning and memory in model organisms. So far, no mutations in specific miRNA genes have been associated with impaired cognitive functions. Methods and results: In three sibs and two unrelated patients with intellectual disability (ID), overlapping 1p21.3 deletions were detected by genome-wide array analysis. The shortest region of overlap included dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) and microRNA 137 (MIR137). DPYD is involved in autosomal recessive dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency. Hemizygous DPYD deletions were previously suggested to contribute to a phenotype with autism spectrum disorder and speech delay. Interestingly, the mature microRNA transcript microRNA-137 (miR-137) was recently shown to be involved in modulating neurogenesis in adult murine neuronal stem cells. Therefore, this study investigated the possible involvement of MIR137 in the 1p21.3-deletion phenotype. The patients displayed a significantly decreased expression of both precursor and mature miR-137 levels, as well as significantly increased expression of the validated downstream targets microphthalmiaassociated transcription factor (MITF) and Enhancer of Zeste, Drosophila, Homologue 2 (EZH2), and the newly identified target Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4). The study also demonstrated significant enrichment of miR-137 at the synapses of cortical and hippocampal neurons, suggesting a role of miR-137 in regulating local synaptic protein synthesis machinery. Conclusions: This study showed that dosage effects of MIR137 are associated with 1p21.3 microdeletions and may therefore contribute to the ID phenotype in patients with deletions harbouring this miRNA. A local effect at the synapse might be responsible.


PubMed | University of New South Wales, Paris-Sorbonne University, Queensland University of Technology, University of Paris Descartes and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of medical genetics | Year: 2016

Acromelic dysplasias are a group of disorders characterised by short stature, brachydactyly, limited joint extension and thickened skin and comprises acromicric dysplasia (AD), geleophysic dysplasia (GD), Myhre syndrome and Weill-Marchesani syndrome. Mutations in several genes have been identified for these disorders (including latent transforming growth factor (TGF-)-binding protein-2 (LTBP2), ADAMTS10, ADAMSTS17 and fibrillin-1 (FBN1) for Weill-Marchesani syndrome, ADAMTSL2 for recessive GD and FBN1 for AD and dominant GD), encoding proteins involved in the microfibrillar network. However, not all cases have mutations in these genes.Individuals negative for mutations in known acromelic dysplasia genes underwent whole exome sequencing.A heterozygous missense mutation (exon 14: c.2087C>G: p.Ser696Cys) in latent transforming growth factor (TGF-)-binding protein-3 (LTBP3) was identified in a dominant AD family. Two distinct de novo heterozygous LTPB3 mutations were also identified in two unrelated GD individuals who had died in early childhood from respiratory failure-a donor splice site mutation (exon 12 c.1846+5G>A) and a stop-loss mutation (exon 28: c.3912A>T: p.1304*Cysext*12).The constellation of features in these AD and GD cases, including postnatal growth retardation of long bones and lung involvement, is reminiscent of the null ltbp3 mice phenotype. We conclude that LTBP3 is a novel component of the microfibrillar network involved in the acromelic dysplasia spectrum.


Bacrot S.,University of Paris Descartes | Doyard M.,University of Paris Descartes | Huber C.,University of Paris Descartes | Alibeu O.,Plateforme de Genomique | And 9 more authors.
Human Mutation | Year: 2015

Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome (CCMS) is a developmental disorder characterized by the association of Pierre Robin sequence and posterior rib defects. Exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing in five unrelated CCMS patients revealed five heterozygous variants in the small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptides B and B1 (SNRPB) gene. This gene includes three transcripts, namely transcripts 1 and 2, encoding components of the core spliceosomal machinery (SmB′ and SmB) and transcript 3 undergoing nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. All variants were located in the premature termination codon (PTC)-introducing alternative exon of transcript 3. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed a significant increase in transcript 3 levels in leukocytes of CCMS individuals compared to controls. We conclude that CCMS is due to heterozygous mutations in SNRPB, enhancing inclusion of a SNRPB PTC-introducing alternative exon, and show that this developmental disease is caused by defects in the splicing machinery. Our finding confirms the report of SNRPB mutations in CCMS patients by Lynch et al. (2014) and further extends the clinical and molecular observations. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

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