Tabernas Almeria, Spain
Tabernas Almeria, Spain

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Joss A.,Eawag - Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology | Baenninger C.,Eawag - Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology | Foa P.,Polytechnic of Milan | Koepke S.,Eawag - Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology | And 7 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2011

Over 1.5 years continuous piloting of a municipal wastewater plant upgraded with a double membrane system (ca. 0.6 m 3 d -1 of product water produced) have demonstrated the feasibility of achieving high water quality with a water yield of 90% by combining a membrane bioreactor (MBR) with a submerged ultrafiltration membrane followed by a reverse osmosis membrane (RO). The novelty of the proposed treatment scheme consists of the appropriate conditioning of MBR effluent prior to the RO and in recycling the RO concentrates back to the biological unit. All the 15 pharmaceuticals measured in the influent municipal sewage were retained below 100 ng L -1, a proposed quality parameter, and mostly below detection limits of 10 ng L -1. The mass balance of the micropollutants shows that these are either degraded or discharged with the excess concentrate, while only minor quantities were found in the excess sludge. The micropollutant load in the concentrate can be significantly reduced by ozonation. A low treated water salinity (<10 mM inorganic salts; 280 ± 70 μS cm -1) also confirms that the resulting product has a high water quality. Solids precipitation and inorganic scaling are effectively mitigated by lowering the pH in the RO feed water with CO 2 conditioning, while the concentrate from the RO is recycled to the biological unit where CO 2 is stripped by aeration. This causes precipitation to occur in the bioreactor bulk, where it is much less of a process issue. SiO 2 is the sole exception. Equilibrium modeling of precipitation reactions confirms the effectiveness of this scaling-mitigation approach for CaCO 3 precipitation, calcium phosphate and sulfate minerals. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Papoutsakis S.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Miralles-Cuevas S.,Plataforma Solar de Almeria | Gondrexon N.,University Grenoble Alpes | Baup S.,University Grenoble Alpes | And 2 more authors.
Ultrasonics Sonochemistry | Year: 2015

This study aims to evaluate the performance of a novel pilot-scale coupled system consisting of a high frequency ultrasonic reactor (400 kHz) and a compound parabolic collector (CPC). The benefits of the concurrent application of ultrasound and the photo-Fenton process were studied in regard to the degradation behavior of a series of organic pollutants. Three compounds (phenol, bisphenol A and diuron) with different physicochemical properties have been chosen in order to identify possible synergistic effects and to obtain a better estimate of the general feasibility of such a system at field scale (10 L). Bisphenol A and diuron were specifically chosen due to their high hydrophobicity, and thus their assumed higher affinity towards the cavitation bubble. Experiments were conducted under ultrasonic, photo-Fenton and combined treatments. Enhanced degradation kinetics were observed during the coupled treatment and synergy factors clearly in excess of 1 have been calculated for phenol as well as for saturated solutions of bisphenol A and diuron. Although the relatively high cost of ultrasound compared to photo-Fenton still presents a significant challenge towards mainstream industrial application, the observed behavior suggests that its prudent use has the potential to significantly benefit the photo-Fenton process, via the decrease of both treatment time and H2O2 consumption. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Navntoft L.C.,University of Buenos Aires | Navntoft L.C.,National University of San Martín of Argentina | Fernandez-Ibanez P.,Plataforma Solar de Almeria | Garreta F.,University of Buenos Aires
Solar Energy | Year: 2012

In the global wavelength range (300-3000. nm), it is known that a plane with a slope equal to the latitude of the location, receives more annual energy than the horizontal plane, mainly due to the increase in direct irradiation on the interest plane. The UV (280-400. nm) spectra at the earth surface, has a larger component of diffuse and a minor component of direct solar radiation compared to the global wavelength range, therefore the increase in annual energy due to plane inclination should also be different. This work, analyzes 4. years of solar UV radiation measurements performed on tilted and horizontal planes located at the Plataforma Solar de Almería, Spain. The monthly mean ratio of tilted/horizontal solar UV irradiation varies with the time of the year, reaching values of 1.25 and 0.95 for winter and summer, respectively. The same ratio in the solar global spectra rises up to 1.70 and 0.85 for the same months. The annual UV solar energy increase on a plane tilted 37° and oriented towards the equator is around 3-4%, whereas is around 10% in the global spectra. In this way UV annual energy increase due to inclination and orientation of the plane is much lower than that for global radiation. Determination of a unique method to assess all possible inclinations and orientations, require simultaneous measurement of diffuse and direct UV radiation performed with radiometers of identical spectral response. Given the worldwide scarcity of these type of data, an empirical correlation that relates horizontal UV irradiation to that on a 37° inclined plane was determined. Monthly and annual tendencies of solar UV irradiation have been analyzed and compared with the solar global irradiation. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Madronero A.,CSIC - National Center for Metallurgical Research | Robla J.,CSIC - National Center for Metallurgical Research | Garcia-Hierro J.,CSIC - National Center for Metallurgical Research | Martin-Gonzalez M.S.,IMM CSIC | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics | Year: 2012

The Seebeck coefficient of vapour grown carbon fibres and carbon fibres made from polyacryolytrile precursor has been studied as a possible parameter to control hydrogen storage inside. The sign of the Seebeck coefficient gives the sign of the dominant charge carriers in the fibres, and when hydrogen is absorbed by the carbonaceous material, mainly as H +, it acts as a positive charge carrier. A simple two-band electronic model has been considered to explain the influence of hydrogenation on the Seebeck's coefficient of these carbon microfibres. The most favourable condition for hydrogen adsorption is a moderately low pressure of hydrogen. Furthermore, it was observed that outgassing is more pronounced than expected in some types of fibres, thereby supporting the proposed presence of hydrogen generated during the manufacturing process. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.


Torrico B.C.,Federal University of Ceará | Roca L.,University of Almeria | Normey-Rico J.E.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Guzman J.L.,University of Almeria | Yebra L.,Plataforma Solar de Almeria
2009 European Control Conference, ECC 2009 | Year: 2015

This paper presents the application of nonlinear predictive control to the distributed collector field of a solar desalination plant. The main purpose of the controller is to manipulate the water flow rate to maintain an outlet-inlet temperature gradient in the collectors in spite of disturbances and water flow rate constraints. The controller uses a deadtime compensation structure to account for the time delay and a nonlinear MPC to compute the control law. Simulation results using real disturbances data are used to illustrate the controller performance. © 2009 EUCA.


Gimenez J.,University of Barcelona | Bayarri B.,University of Barcelona | Gonzalez O.,University of Barcelona | Malato S.,Plataforma Solar de Almeria | And 2 more authors.
ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering | Year: 2015

Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) are widely used at laboratory scale in the treatment of different pollutants, and many references appear in the literature on this subject. However, there are not many works devoted to the study of the impact of these laboratory works from an environmental and economic point of view. For these reasons, this study is focused on the environmental impact evaluation, by LCA, of two AOPs (photocatalysis and pho-Fenton) in two different experimental setups (solarbox and CPCs), for the treatment of metoprolol. LCA has proved to be useful to compare the AOPs and the tested devices. In the same way, an economic assessment was made for the same AOPs and installations. Conclusions are very meaningful, pointing out that the cost of such experiments at laboratory level is not negligible and has to be seriously considered. As a consequence, laboratory work has to be accurately planned, and analysis techniques and proofs to be used must be carefully selected to avoid excessive increases in the costs of laboratory experiments. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Papoutsakis S.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Afshari Z.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Malato S.,Plataforma Solar de Almeria | Pulgarin C.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering | Year: 2015

The use of ultrasound and photo-Fenton advanced oxidation processes has been investigated for the treatment of aquatic media contaminated with the iodinated contrast agent Iohexol. Iohexol is primarily introduced in the water network from hospitals discharging the urine of patients submitted to medical imaging. Treatment options have been considered for eliminating either highly concentrated solutions (up to 6 g L-1) at the hospital source (in urine) or highly diluted (in the mg L-1 range) within municipal wastewater. Although the efficiency of ultrasound was shown to be low, complete Iohexol removal was achieved by application of photo-Fenton in diluted urine, Advantages and disadvantages of each option are discussed and the biodegradability of solutions subjected to the treatment has been evaluated. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.All rights reserved.


Kovacik J.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Emmer S.,Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava | Rodriguez J.,Plataforma Solar de Almeria | Canadas I.,Plataforma Solar de Almeria
METAL 2014 - 23rd International Conference on Metallurgy and Materials, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2014

The 37MnSi5 steel samples were coated by TiB2 ceramic using electro spark deposition. Then the thermal shock behavior of coated and uncoated steel samples was observed using 5kW vertical solar furnace at Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Spain. The microstructure and micro hardness of the samples were observed before and after solar shock treatment. It was observed that used coatings due to good thermal conductivity lowers the maximal temperature observed in steel substrate thus enabling better dissipation of the maximum temperature into the steel sample. Together with good resistance to various chemicals also at higher temperature it seems that TiB2 is promising for surface coatings of solar heat receivers made from high temperature steels.


Turki A.,Tunis el Manar University | Turki A.,CNRS Research on Catalysis and Environment in Lyon | Ibanez P.F.,Plataforma Solar de Almeria | Ghorbel A.,Tunis el Manar University | And 3 more authors.
Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings | Year: 2012

1 D TiO2 nanomaterials (nanotubes, nanowires) were synthesized through hydrothermal treatment of TiO2 powder (P25) in concentrated alkaline solutions (NaOH for nanotubes, KOH for nanowires) followed by calcination at varying temperatures between 400°C and 700°C Samples were characterized by HRTEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopy, and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. High surface area nanotubular TiO2 materials can maintain their 1D morphology up to a temperature of calcination of 400°C while changing their phase from hydrogenotitanate to anatase. The use of KOH leads to a retarded formation of anatase. Photocatalytic results showed that TiO2 anatase nanotubes calcined at 400°C can degrade formic acid with a rate constant four times higher than for P25. A direct correlation between surface area and photocatalytic activity explains the much higher activity of TiO2 anatase nanotubes. On the opposite, for the degradation of phenol, P25 remains more active. In the disinfection of water, contrary to P25, the high surface area of TiO2 nanotubes allows the simultaneous degradation of formic acid and the inactivation of pathogen fungus showing the interest of such materials for the treatment of wastewater. © 2012 Materials Research Society.

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