Plasmionique Inc.

Varennes, Canada

Plasmionique Inc.

Varennes, Canada
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Ambriz-Vargas F.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Kolhatkar G.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Thomas R.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Nouar R.,Plasmionique Inc. | And 4 more authors.
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2017

The present work reports the fabrication of a ferroelectric tunnel junction based on a CMOS compatible 2.8 nm-thick Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 tunnel barrier. It presents a comprehensive study of the electronic properties of the Pt/Hf0.5Zr0.5O2/Pt system by X-ray photoelectron and UV-Visible spectroscopies. Furthermore, two different scanning probe techniques (Piezoresponse Force Microscopy and conductive-AFM) were used to demonstrate the ferroelectric behavior of the ultrathin Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 layer as well as the typical current-voltage characteristic of a ferroelectric tunnel junction device. Finally, a direct tunneling model across symmetric barriers was used to correlate electronic and electric transport properties of the ferroelectric tunnel junction system, demonstrating a large tunnel electroresistance effect with a tunneling electroresistance effect ratio of 20. © 2017 Author(s).

Ambriz-Vargas F.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Kolhatkar G.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Broyer M.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Hadj-Youssef A.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | And 6 more authors.
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces | Year: 2017

In recent years, experimental demonstration of ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJ) based on perovskite tunnel barriers has been reported. However, integrating these perovskite materials into conventional silicon memory technology remains challenging due to their lack of compatibility with the complementary metal oxide semiconductor process (CMOS). This communication reports the fabrication of an FTJ based on a CMOS-compatible tunnel barrier Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 (6 unit cells thick) on an equally CMOS-compatible TiN electrode. Analysis of the FTJ by grazing angle incidence X-ray diffraction confirmed the formation of the noncentrosymmetric orthorhombic phase (Pbc21, ferroelectric phase). The FTJ characterization is followed by the reconstruction of the electrostatic potential profile in the as-grown TiN/Hf0.5Zr0.5O2/Pt heterostructure. A direct tunneling current model across a trapezoidal barrier was used to correlate the electronic and electrical properties of our FTJ devices. The good agreement between the experimental and theoretical model attests to the tunneling electroresistance effect (TER) in our FTJ device. A TER ratio of ∼15 was calculated for the present FTJ device at low read voltage (+0.2 V). This study suggests that Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 is a promising candidate for integration into conventional Si memory technology. © 2017 American Chemical Society.

Rohollahi A.,University of Saskatchewan | Elgriw S.,University of Saskatchewan | Basu D.,University of Saskatchewan | Wolfe S.,Plasmionique Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Nuclear Fusion | Year: 2017

In the Saskatchewan torus-modified (STOR-M) tokamak, tangential compact torus injection (CTI) experiments have been performed with normal (counter-clockwise, CCW, top view) and reversed (clockwise, CW, top view) plasma current directions while the compact torus (CT) injection direction remains in the CCW direction. The intrinsic toroidal flow direction reverses when the discharge current is reversed. However, the change in the toroidal flow direction is always toward the CTI direction (CCW). It has been determined that the momentum in high density and high velocity CT is more than ten times larger than the intrinsic toroidal rotation momentum in the typical STOR-M plasma. Therefore, the modification of the plasma toroidal rotation velocity is attributed to momentum transfer from CT to the tokamak discharge. © 2017 IAEA, Vienna.

Busnel F.,Laval University | Blanchard V.,19 rue Franquet | Pregent J.,University of Montréal | Stafford L.,University of Montréal | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology | Year: 2010

This work examines the adhesion properties of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and black spruce (Picea mariana) wood surfaces following their exposure to a dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure. Freshly sanded wood samples were treated in Ar, O2, N2 and CO 2-containing plasmas and then coated with a waterborne urethane/acrylate coating. In the case of black spruce wood, pull-off tests showed adhesion improvement up to 35% after exposure to a N2/O 2 (1:2) plasma for 1 s. For the same exposure time, adhesion improvements on sugar maple wood up to ∼25% were obtained in Ar/O 2 (1:1) and CO2/N2 (1:1) plasma mixtures. Analysis of the wettability with water contact angle measurements indicate that the experimental conditions leading to adhesion improvement are those producing more hydrophobic wood surfaces. In the case of sugar maple samples, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations of the near-surface chemical composition indicate an increase of the O/C ratio due to the formation of functional groups after exposure to oxygen-containing plasmas. It is believed that a combination of structural change (induced by UV radiation, metastable particles impingement, or both) and chemical change due to surface oxidation is responsible for the observed surface modification of black spruce and sugar maple wood samples. © 2010 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.

Dreval M.,University of Saskatchewan | Dreval M.,National Science Center Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology | Xiao C.,University of Saskatchewan | Elgriw S.,University of Saskatchewan | And 3 more authors.
Review of Scientific Instruments | Year: 2011

A technique is presented for determining the radial location of the rotating magnetic islands in the STOR-M tokamak by use of soft x-ray (SXR) detector arrays. The location is determined by examining the difference in the integrated SXR emission intensities through two adjacent lines of sight. A model for calculating dependence of the line integrated SXR emission intensity on the radius, the mode numbers and the magnetic island geometry, has been developed. The SXR difference signal shows phase inversion when the impact parameter of the line of sight sweeps across the magnetic islands. Experimentally, the difference SXR signals significantly reduce noise and suppress the influence of background plasma fluctuations through common mode rejection when a dominant mode exists in the STOR-M tokamak. The radial locations of the m 2 magnetic islands have been determined under several experimental conditions in the STOR-M discharges. With the decrease in the tokamak discharge current and thus the increase of the safety factor at the edge, the radial location of the m 2 magnetic islands has been found to move radially inward. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

Kpetsu J.-B.A.,Plasmionique Inc. | Jedrzejowski P.,Plasmionique Inc. | Cote C.,Plasmionique Inc. | Sarkissian A.,Plasmionique Inc. | And 6 more authors.
Nanoscale Research Letters | Year: 2010

Dense, vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes were synthesized on TiN electrode layers for infrared sensing applications. Microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and Ni catalyst were used for the nanotubes synthesis. The resultant nanotubes were characterized by SEM, AFM, and TEM. Since the length of the nanotubes influences sensor characteristics, we study in details the effects of changing Ni and TiN thickness on the physical properties of the nanotubes. In this paper, we report the observation of a threshold Ni thickness of about 4 nm, when the average CNT growth rate switches from an increasing to a decreasing function of increasing Ni thickness, for a process temperature of 700°C. This behavior is likely related to a transition in the growth mode from a predominantly "base growth" to that of a "tip growth." For Ni layer greater than 9 nm the growth rate, as well as the CNT diameter, variations become insignificant. We have also observed that a TiN barrier layer appears to favor the growth of thinner CNTs compared to a SiO 2 layer. © The Author(s) 2010.

Achkar A.,Plasmionique Inc. | Jedrzejowski P.,Plasmionique Inc. | Pignoleta A.,INRS EMT | Sarkissian A.,Plasmionique Inc.
Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials | Year: 2010

This paper describes our preliminary results for controlling the structure of ZnO thin films grown on Si(100) at room temperature by PLD. The laser was operated at λ=810nm and pulse durations ranging from 30fs to 275ps were used. A laser fluence of 2J/cm2 was used for pulse durations of 50fs, 200fs, 1ps and 10ps, which produced porous films that were found to increase in density with increasing pulse duration. Experiments were also conducted with 7.5J/cm2, which resulted in denser films. The areal density and the size of the droplets were found to increase with decreasing pulse duration.

Levasseur O.,University of Montréal | Stafford L.,University of Montréal | Gherardi N.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Gherardi N.,CNRS LAPLACE Lab | And 6 more authors.
Plasma Processes and Polymers | Year: 2012

This work examines the functionalization of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and black spruce (Picea mariana) wood surfaces using an atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge in He and He/HMDSO (hexamethyldisiloxane) gas mixtures. Wood samples were placed on one of the electrodes and the plasma was sustained by applying a 3.5 kV peak-to-peak voltage at 12 kHz. Analysis of the discharge stability through current-voltage (I-V) characteristics revealed a filamentary behaviour, in sharp contrast with the homogeneous He discharge obtained with a glass sample. Optical emission spectroscopy performed near the wood vicinity revealed strong N2 and N2 + emissions, suggesting that wood outgassing plays an important role in the evolution of the discharge regime. Analysis of the surface wettability through water contact angle (WCA) measurements indicated that freshly sanded wood samples treated in He/HMDSO plasmas became more hydrophobic with WCAs in the 120°-140° range depending on treatment time and wood species. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy measurements on samples exposed to He/HMDSO plasmas revealed the deposition of hydrophobic Si(CH3)3-O-Si(CH3)2, Si(CH3)3 and Si(CH3)2 functional groups as well as an increase of the CH-to-OH band intensity ratio. For relatively thick coatings, the WCA following natural aging under uncontrolled conditions remained constant at 132° ± 3° which highlights the stability of the plasma-deposited thin films, a very promising result for structural and decorative outdoor applications. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

Yan C.,University of Québec | Yan C.,McGill University | Nikolova L.,University of Québec | Dadvand A.,University of Québec | And 6 more authors.
Advanced Materials | Year: 2010

(Figure Presented) Multiple NaNbO3 nanoplates are created within Nb2O5 nanotubes forming a unique class of heterostructure nanotubes combining ferroelectric and semiconducting nanomaterials. Local piezoelectric studies on NaNbO3 nanoplates show clear ferroelectric behavior (see figure), while the semiconductive properties of the host Nb 2O5 nanotubes allows for switching of electrical conductivity by an external electric field. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA,.

PubMed | INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique, STMicroelectronics, Lyon Institute of Nanotechnologies, Université de Sherbrooke and Plasmionique Inc.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nanoscale research letters | Year: 2016

We propose a novel technique to investigate the gas sensitivity of materials for implementation in field-effect transistor-based gas sensors. Our technique is based on the measurement of the surface charge induced by gas species adsorption, using an electrometer. Platinum sensitivity to hydrogen diluted in synthetic air has been evaluated with the proposed charge measurement technique in the operation temperature range from 80 to 190C at constant H

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