Plasmionique Inc.

Varennes, Canada

Plasmionique Inc.

Varennes, Canada

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Ambriz-Vargas F.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Kolhatkar G.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Thomas R.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Nouar R.,Plasmionique Inc. | And 4 more authors.
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2017

The present work reports the fabrication of a ferroelectric tunnel junction based on a CMOS compatible 2.8 nm-thick Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 tunnel barrier. It presents a comprehensive study of the electronic properties of the Pt/Hf0.5Zr0.5O2/Pt system by X-ray photoelectron and UV-Visible spectroscopies. Furthermore, two different scanning probe techniques (Piezoresponse Force Microscopy and conductive-AFM) were used to demonstrate the ferroelectric behavior of the ultrathin Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 layer as well as the typical current-voltage characteristic of a ferroelectric tunnel junction device. Finally, a direct tunneling model across symmetric barriers was used to correlate electronic and electric transport properties of the ferroelectric tunnel junction system, demonstrating a large tunnel electroresistance effect with a tunneling electroresistance effect ratio of 20. © 2017 Author(s).


Li Y.,Beihang University | Li Y.,University of Western Ontario | Ezugwu S.,University of Western Ontario | Park J.,University of Western Ontario | And 5 more authors.
Solar Energy | Year: 2016

Although changes in morphology and defect distribution at the cathode/active layer interface are presumed to limit the efficiency of sputtered cathodes for organic solar cells, little information is available on the nature of defects involved and on possible strategies to mitigate these effects. We demonstrate the sputter-induced formation of paramagnetic centers associated to the change in conformation and amorphization of P3HT in the proximity of the cathodes, which strongly affects the performance of polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction photovoltaics. Similarity in g-values and X-ray diffraction analysis suggest that defects produced at the cathode/organic interface by sputtering are of the same nature as those produced by thermal annealing at 150-180 °C, and that thin calcium layers thermally evaporated prior to cathode sputtering act as thermal sinks mitigating the defect formation by impinging sputtered ions. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Busnel F.,Laval University | Blanchard V.,19 rue Franquet | Pregent J.,University of Montréal | Stafford L.,University of Montréal | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology | Year: 2010

This work examines the adhesion properties of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and black spruce (Picea mariana) wood surfaces following their exposure to a dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure. Freshly sanded wood samples were treated in Ar, O2, N2 and CO 2-containing plasmas and then coated with a waterborne urethane/acrylate coating. In the case of black spruce wood, pull-off tests showed adhesion improvement up to 35% after exposure to a N2/O 2 (1:2) plasma for 1 s. For the same exposure time, adhesion improvements on sugar maple wood up to ∼25% were obtained in Ar/O 2 (1:1) and CO2/N2 (1:1) plasma mixtures. Analysis of the wettability with water contact angle measurements indicate that the experimental conditions leading to adhesion improvement are those producing more hydrophobic wood surfaces. In the case of sugar maple samples, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations of the near-surface chemical composition indicate an increase of the O/C ratio due to the formation of functional groups after exposure to oxygen-containing plasmas. It is believed that a combination of structural change (induced by UV radiation, metastable particles impingement, or both) and chemical change due to surface oxidation is responsible for the observed surface modification of black spruce and sugar maple wood samples. © 2010 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.


Dreval M.,University of Saskatchewan | Dreval M.,National Science Center Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology | Xiao C.,University of Saskatchewan | Elgriw S.,University of Saskatchewan | And 3 more authors.
Review of Scientific Instruments | Year: 2011

A technique is presented for determining the radial location of the rotating magnetic islands in the STOR-M tokamak by use of soft x-ray (SXR) detector arrays. The location is determined by examining the difference in the integrated SXR emission intensities through two adjacent lines of sight. A model for calculating dependence of the line integrated SXR emission intensity on the radius, the mode numbers and the magnetic island geometry, has been developed. The SXR difference signal shows phase inversion when the impact parameter of the line of sight sweeps across the magnetic islands. Experimentally, the difference SXR signals significantly reduce noise and suppress the influence of background plasma fluctuations through common mode rejection when a dominant mode exists in the STOR-M tokamak. The radial locations of the m 2 magnetic islands have been determined under several experimental conditions in the STOR-M discharges. With the decrease in the tokamak discharge current and thus the increase of the safety factor at the edge, the radial location of the m 2 magnetic islands has been found to move radially inward. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.


Kpetsu J.-B.A.,Plasmionique Inc. | Jedrzejowski P.,Plasmionique Inc. | Cote C.,Plasmionique Inc. | Sarkissian A.,Plasmionique Inc. | And 6 more authors.
Nanoscale Research Letters | Year: 2010

Dense, vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes were synthesized on TiN electrode layers for infrared sensing applications. Microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and Ni catalyst were used for the nanotubes synthesis. The resultant nanotubes were characterized by SEM, AFM, and TEM. Since the length of the nanotubes influences sensor characteristics, we study in details the effects of changing Ni and TiN thickness on the physical properties of the nanotubes. In this paper, we report the observation of a threshold Ni thickness of about 4 nm, when the average CNT growth rate switches from an increasing to a decreasing function of increasing Ni thickness, for a process temperature of 700°C. This behavior is likely related to a transition in the growth mode from a predominantly "base growth" to that of a "tip growth." For Ni layer greater than 9 nm the growth rate, as well as the CNT diameter, variations become insignificant. We have also observed that a TiN barrier layer appears to favor the growth of thinner CNTs compared to a SiO 2 layer. © The Author(s) 2010.


Achkar A.,Plasmionique Inc. | Jedrzejowski P.,Plasmionique Inc. | Pignoleta A.,INRS EMT | Sarkissian A.,Plasmionique Inc.
Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials | Year: 2010

This paper describes our preliminary results for controlling the structure of ZnO thin films grown on Si(100) at room temperature by PLD. The laser was operated at λ=810nm and pulse durations ranging from 30fs to 275ps were used. A laser fluence of 2J/cm2 was used for pulse durations of 50fs, 200fs, 1ps and 10ps, which produced porous films that were found to increase in density with increasing pulse duration. Experiments were also conducted with 7.5J/cm2, which resulted in denser films. The areal density and the size of the droplets were found to increase with decreasing pulse duration.


Levasseur O.,University of Montréal | Stafford L.,University of Montréal | Gherardi N.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | Gherardi N.,CNRS LAPLACE Lab | And 6 more authors.
Plasma Processes and Polymers | Year: 2012

This work examines the functionalization of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and black spruce (Picea mariana) wood surfaces using an atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge in He and He/HMDSO (hexamethyldisiloxane) gas mixtures. Wood samples were placed on one of the electrodes and the plasma was sustained by applying a 3.5 kV peak-to-peak voltage at 12 kHz. Analysis of the discharge stability through current-voltage (I-V) characteristics revealed a filamentary behaviour, in sharp contrast with the homogeneous He discharge obtained with a glass sample. Optical emission spectroscopy performed near the wood vicinity revealed strong N2 and N2 + emissions, suggesting that wood outgassing plays an important role in the evolution of the discharge regime. Analysis of the surface wettability through water contact angle (WCA) measurements indicated that freshly sanded wood samples treated in He/HMDSO plasmas became more hydrophobic with WCAs in the 120°-140° range depending on treatment time and wood species. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy measurements on samples exposed to He/HMDSO plasmas revealed the deposition of hydrophobic Si(CH3)3-O-Si(CH3)2, Si(CH3)3 and Si(CH3)2 functional groups as well as an increase of the CH-to-OH band intensity ratio. For relatively thick coatings, the WCA following natural aging under uncontrolled conditions remained constant at 132° ± 3° which highlights the stability of the plasma-deposited thin films, a very promising result for structural and decorative outdoor applications. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.


Levasseur O.,University of Montréal | Stafford L.,University of Montréal | Gherardi N.,Toulouse 1 University Capitole | Gherardi N.,Laval University | And 9 more authors.
Surface and Coatings Technology | Year: 2013

This work examines the influence of substrate outgassing on the deposition dynamics of either hydrophilic or hydrophobic coatings on wood surfaces in organosilicon, dielectric barrier discharges. Sugar maple and black spruce wood samples were placed on the bottom electrode and the discharge was sustained in N2-HMDSO (hexamethyldisiloxane) gas mixtures by applying a 24kV peak-to-peak voltage at 2kHz. Current-voltage characteristics revealed a transition from a filamentary to a homogeneous discharge with increasing plasma treatment time, t. Based on optical emission spectroscopy, the filamentary behavior was ascribed to the release of air and humidity from the wood substrate following discharge exposure which produced significant quenching of N2 metastables. This effect vanished at longer treatment times due to the nearly complete "pumping" of products from the wood substrate and the progressive deposition of a "barrier" layer. Analysis of the surface wettability through static, water contact angles (WCAs) and of the surface composition through Fourier-Transform-Infra-Red-Spectroscopy and X-ray-Photoelectron-Spectroscopy indicated that for t<10min, the wood surface was more hydrophilic due to the formation of a SiOx layer, a typical behavior for HMDSO deposition in presence of oxygen. On the other hand, for t>10min, the static WCA increased up to ~140° due to the deposition of hydrophobic Si(CH3)3-O-Si(CH3)2, Si(CH3)3, and Si(CH3)2 functional groups.© 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Yan C.,University of Québec | Yan C.,McGill University | Nikolova L.,University of Québec | Dadvand A.,University of Québec | And 6 more authors.
Advanced Materials | Year: 2010

(Figure Presented) Multiple NaNbO3 nanoplates are created within Nb2O5 nanotubes forming a unique class of heterostructure nanotubes combining ferroelectric and semiconducting nanomaterials. Local piezoelectric studies on NaNbO3 nanoplates show clear ferroelectric behavior (see figure), while the semiconductive properties of the host Nb 2O5 nanotubes allows for switching of electrical conductivity by an external electric field. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA,.


PubMed | INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique, STMicroelectronics, Lyon Institute of Nanotechnologies, Université de Sherbrooke and Plasmionique Inc.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nanoscale research letters | Year: 2016

We propose a novel technique to investigate the gas sensitivity of materials for implementation in field-effect transistor-based gas sensors. Our technique is based on the measurement of the surface charge induced by gas species adsorption, using an electrometer. Platinum sensitivity to hydrogen diluted in synthetic air has been evaluated with the proposed charge measurement technique in the operation temperature range from 80 to 190C at constant H

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