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Marino D.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Marino D.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Marino D.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Dunand C.,CNRS Plant Research Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2012

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly reactive molecules able to damage cellular components but they also act as cell signalling elements. ROS are produced by many different enzymatic systems. Plant NADPH oxidases, also known as respiratory burst oxidase homologues (RBOHs), are the most thoroughly studied enzymatic ROS-generating systems and our understanding of their involvement in various plant processes has increased considerably in recent years. In this review we discuss their roles as ROS producers during cell growth, plant development and plant response to abiotic environmental constraints and biotic interactions, both pathogenic and symbiotic. This broad range of functions suggests that RBOHs may serve as important molecular 'hubs' during ROS-mediated signalling in plants. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Gough C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Gough C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Jacquet C.,CNRS Plant Research Laboratory
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2013

Plant plasma membrane-bound receptors with extracellular lysin motif (LysM) domains participate in interactions with microorganisms. In Medicago truncatula, the LysM receptor-like kinase gene nodulation (Nod) factor perception (NFP) is a key gene that controls the perception of rhizobial lipochitooligosaccharide (LCO) Nod factors for the establishment of the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. In this article, we review recent data that have refined our understanding of this function and that have revealed a role for NFP in the perception of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiotic signals and plant pathogenic microorganisms. The dual role of NFP in symbiosis and immunity suggests that this receptor protein controls the perception of different signals and the activation of different downstream signalling pathways. These advances provide new insights into the evolution and functioning of this versatile plant protein. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Delaux P.-M.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Becard G.,CNRS Plant Research Laboratory | Combier J.-P.,CNRS Plant Research Laboratory
New Phytologist | Year: 2013

Nodulation and arbuscular mycorrhization require the activation of plant host symbiotic programs by Nod factors, and Myc-LCOs and COs, respectively. The pathways involved in the perception and downstream signaling of these signals include common and distinct components. Among the distinct components, NSP1, a GRAS transcription factor, has been considered for years to be specifically involved in nodulation. Here, we analyzed the degree of conservation of the NSP1 sequence in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) host and non-AM host plants and carefully examined the ability of Medicago truncatula nsp1 mutants to respond to Myc-LCOs and to be colonized by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. In AM-host plants, the selection pressure on NSP1 is stronger than in non-AM host ones. The response to Myc-LCOs and the frequency of mycorrhizal colonization are significantly reduced in the nsp1 mutants. Our results reveal that NSP1, previously described for its involvement in the Nod factor signaling pathway, is also involved in the Myc-LCO signaling pathway. They bring additional evidence on the evolutionary relatedness between nodulation and mycorrhization. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.


Fawal N.,CNRS Plant Research Laboratory | Savelli B.,CNRS Plant Research Laboratory | Dunand C.,CNRS Plant Research Laboratory | Mathe C.,CNRS Plant Research Laboratory
Bioinformatics | Year: 2012

GECA is a fast, user-friendly and freely-available tool for representing gene exon/intron organization and highlighting changes in gene structure among members of a gene family. It relies on protein alignment, completed with the identification of common introns in the corresponding genes using CIWOG. GECA produces a main graphical representation showing the resulting aligned set of gene structures, where exons are to scale. The important and original feature of GECA is that it combines these gene structures with a symbolic display highlighting sequence similarity between subsequent genes. It is worth noting that this combination of gene structure with the indications of similarities between related genes allows rapid identification of possible events of gain or loss of introns, or points to erroneous structural annotations. The output image is generated in a portable network graphics format which can be used for scientific publications. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


Delaux P.-M.,CNRS Plant Research Laboratory
New Phytologist | Year: 2016

I. II. III. IV. V. VI. References Summary: Understanding the genetic bases of complex traits has been a main challenge in biology for decades. Comparative phylogenomics offers an opportunity to identify candidate genes associated with these complex traits. This approach initially developed in prokaryotes consists in looking at shared coevolution between genes and traits. It thus requires a precise reconstruction of the trait evolution, a large genomic sampling in the clades of interest and an accurate definition of orthogroups. Recently, with the growing body of sequenced plant genomes, comparative genomics has been successfully applied to plants to study the widespread arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Here I will use these findings to illustrate the main principles of comparative phylogenomic approaches and propose directions to improve our understanding of symbiotic associations. © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.


Balzergue C.,CNRS Plant Research Laboratory | Puech-Pags V.,CNRS Plant Research Laboratory | Becard G.,CNRS Plant Research Laboratory | Rochange S.F.,CNRS Plant Research Laboratory
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2011

Most plants form root symbioses with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, which provide them with phosphate and other nutrients. High soil phosphate levels are known to affect AM symbiosis negatively, but the underlying mechanisms are not understood. This report describes experimental conditions which triggered a novel mycorrhizal phenotype under high phosphate supply: the interaction between pea and two different AM fungi was almost completely abolished at a very early stage, prior to the formation of hyphopodia. As demonstrated by split-root experiments, down-regulation of AM symbiosis occurred at least partly in response to plant-derived signals. Early signalling events were examined with a focus on strigolactones, compounds which stimulate pre-symbiotic fungal growth and metabolism. Strigolactones were also recently identified as novel plant hormones contributing to the control of shoot branching. Root exudates of plants grown under high phosphate lost their ability to stimulate AM fungi and lacked strigolactones. In addition, a systemic down-regulation of strigolactone release by high phosphate supply was demonstrated using split-root systems. Nevertheless, supplementation with exogenous strigolactones failed to restore root colonization under high phosphate. This observation does not exclude a contribution of strigolactones to the regulation of AM symbiosis by phosphate, but indicates that they are not the only factor involved. Together, the results suggest the existence of additional early signals that may control the differentiation of hyphopodia. © 2010 The Author(s).


Lauressergues D.,CNRS Plant Research Laboratory | Lauressergues D.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Couzigou J.-M.,CNRS Plant Research Laboratory | Couzigou J.-M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 9 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2015

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNA molecules that inhibit the expression of specific target genes by binding to and cleaving their messenger RNAs or otherwise inhibiting their translation into proteins. miRNAs are transcribed as much larger primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs), the function of which is not fully understood. Here we show that plant pri-miRNAs contain short open reading frame sequences that encode regulatory peptides. The pri-miR171b of Medicago truncatula and the pri-miR165a of Arabidopsis thaliana produce peptides, which we term miPEP171b and miPEP165a, respectively, that enhance the accumulation of their corresponding mature miRNAs, resulting in downregulation of target genes involved in root development. The mechanism of miRNA-encoded peptide (miPEP) action involves increasing transcription of the pri-miRNA. Five other pri-miRNAs of A. thaliana and M. truncatula encode active miPEPs, suggesting that miPEPs are widespread throughout the plant kingdom. Synthetic miPEP171b and miPEP165a peptides applied to plants specifically trigger the accumulation of miR171b and miR165a, leading to reduction of lateral root development and stimulation of main root growth, respectively, suggesting that miPEPs might have agronomical applications. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Cheval C.,CNRS Plant Research Laboratory | Aldon D.,CNRS Plant Research Laboratory | Galaud J.-P.,CNRS Plant Research Laboratory | Ranty B.,CNRS Plant Research Laboratory
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Cell Research | Year: 2013

Calcium is a universal messenger involved in the modulation of diverse developmental and adaptive processes in response to various physiological stimuli. Ca2+ signals are represented by stimulus-specific Ca2+ signatures that are sensed and translated into proper cellular responses by diverse Ca2+ binding proteins and their downstream targets. Calmodulin (CaM) and calmodulin-like (CML) proteins are primary Ca2+ sensors that control diverse cellular functions by regulating the activity of various target proteins. Recent advances in our understanding of Ca2+/CaM-mediated signalling in plants have emerged from investigations into plant defence responses against various pathogens. Here, we focus on significant progress made in the identification of CaM/CML-regulated components involved in the generation of Ca2+ signals and Ca2+-dependent regulation of gene expression during plant immune responses. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 12th European Symposium on Calcium. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Delaux P.-M.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Sejalon-Delmas N.,Ecolab | Becard G.,CNRS Plant Research Laboratory | Ane J.-M.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2013

Beneficial associations between plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi play a major role in terrestrial environments and in the sustainability of agroecosystems. Proteins, microRNAs, and small molecules have been identified in model angiosperms as required for the establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal associations and define a symbiotic 'toolkit' used for other interactions such as the rhizobia-legume symbiosis. Based on recent studies, we propose an evolutionary framework for this toolkit. Some components appeared recently in angiosperms, whereas others are highly conserved even in land plants unable to form arbuscular mycorrhizal associations. The exciting finding that some components pre-date the appearance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi suggests the existence of unknown roles for this toolkit and even the possibility of symbiotic associations in charophyte green algae. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Albenne C.,CNRS Plant Research Laboratory | Canut H.,CNRS Plant Research Laboratory | Jamet E.,CNRS Plant Research Laboratory
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2013

Plant cell wall proteins (CWPs progressively emerged as crucial components of cell walls although present in minor amounts. Cell wall polysaccharides such as pectins, hemicelluloses, and cellulose represent more than 90% of primary cell wall mass, whereas hemicelluloses, cellulose, and lignins are the main components of lignified secondary walls. All these polymers provide mechanical properties to cell walls, participate in cell shape and prevent water loss in aerial organs. However, cell walls need to be modified and customized during plant development and in response to environmental cues, thus contributing to plant adaptation. CWPs play essential roles in all these physiological processes and particularly in the dynamics of cell walls, which requires organization and rearrangements of polysaccharides as well as cell-to-cell communication. In the last 10 years, plant cell wall proteomics has greatly contributed to a wider knowledge of CWPs. This update will deal with (i a survey of plant cell wall proteomics studies with a focus on Arabidopsis thaliana; (ii the main protein families identified and the still missing peptides; (iii the persistent issue of the non-canonical CWPs; (iv the present challenges to overcome technological bottlenecks; and (v the perspectives beyond cell wall proteomics to understand CWP functions. © 2013 Albenne, Canut and Jamet.

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