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Thuy T.T.T.,Hanoi University of Agriculture | Yen N.T.,Plant Quarantine Diagnosis Center | Tuyet N.T.A.,Plant Quarantine Diagnosis Center | Te L.L.,Hanoi University of Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2012

The objective of our study was to examine the effect of local environmental conditions, especially air temperature and rainfall, in two agro-ecological regions in Vietnam on the population dynamics of Meloidogyne incognita on black pepper plants and on percentage root galling. The two study sites were situated in Cam Lo, Quang Tri province (North Central Coast) and Buon Ma Thuot, Dac Lac province (Central Highlands). At the study sites, 13 plant-parasitic nematode taxa belonging to 12 genera were identified. Ten of these taxa were present in both study sites. Helicotylenchus certus, Hemicriconemoides cocophilus and Pratylenchus coffeae were only found in Buon Ma Thuot. Based on nematode population densities, M. incognita was the most abundant taxon present. Rainfall and air temperature differed significantly between the two study sites. The most important climatic difference was rainfall: in Buon Ma Thuot, the rainy season lasted 2 months longer and the monthly rainfall during the rainy season was much higher compared to Cam Lo. Although this difference resulted in some differences in the population dynamics of M. incognita in the soil and roots of the black pepper variety Vinh Linh, the highest root population densities were observed in both study sites during the first half of the dry season. In Cam Lo, the highest percentage root galling was observed during the first half of the dry season. In Buon Ma Thuot, the highest percentage root galling was observed towards the end of the rainy season. Estimating the population densities if M. incognita to decide on the application of a management strategy should be done during the first half of the dry season. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Thuy T.T.T.,Hanoi University of Agriculture | Chi N.T.M.,Vietnam Academy of science VAAS | Yen N.T.,Plant Quarantine Diagnosis Center | Anh L.T.N.,Plant Quarantine Diagnosis Center | And 3 more authors.
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2013

During a survey of nurseries and plantations of black pepper plants in Quang Tri province in Vietnam during the rainy season of 2007, nine fungal taxa were isolated from the roots of the black pepper plants. Fusarium solani was found in about one out of four black pepper root samples examined but not in the nurseries and also not from black pepper plants younger than five years growing in plantations. Since in these nurseries about one out of two black pepper plants examined had yellow leaves, this observation suggests that another pathogen must be the initial cause of the yellowing of the leaves. A likely pathogenic candidate is M. incognita which was extracted from every single black pepper plant examined in the nurseries. During the same survey, we also observed that F. solani was not isolated from the roots of black pepper plants that did not had yellow leaves and that the percentage of black pepper plants with yellow leaves increased with increased frequency of occurrence of F. solani. This observation indicates that F. solani plays a role in the yellowing of the leaves of black pepper plants in a later stage of the development of the plants. The results of a greenhouse experiment showed the negative effects inoculation with M. incognita alone or in combination with F. solani may have on the percentage of black pepper plants with yellow leaves and on plant growth. No effect of inoculation with F. solani before, at the same time, or two weeks after inoculation with M. incognita on root galling and nematode reproduction was observed. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Thuy T.T.T.,Hanoi University of Agriculture | Yen N.T.,Plant Quarantine Diagnosis Center | Tuyet N.T.A.,Plant Quarantine Diagnosis Center | Te L.L.,Hanoi University of Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2012

Thirty-five nematode species belonging to 19 genera were extracted from 432 soil and root samples collected in 19 districts in six provinces in the North Central Coast, Central Highlands and Phu Quoc Island. Based on our study, the predominant nematode species associated with black pepper plants in Vietnam is Meloidogyne incognita: almost every soil and root sample examined during our study was infected with this root-knot nematode species. No difference in frequency of occurrence of M. incognita among the three agro-ecological regions surveyed was observed. However, the root population density of M. incognita in black pepper plants was on average about five times higher in the North Central Coast and Central Highlands than in Phu Quoc Island. Large differences in root population density of M. incognita on black pepper plants were observed in different districts within the same agro-ecological region. Black pepper roots infected with M. incognita showed the same type of galls as described in the literature. The percentage of root galling averaged about 40% in all the three agro-ecological regions. The percentage of black pepper plants with yellow leaves was on average about 20-25% in the North Central Coast and Central Highlands, which was somewhat higher compared to Phu Quoc Island (16.9%). Large differences in percentage of black pepper plants with yellow leaves were observed in different districts within the same agro-ecological region. The same type of yellow leaves as described in the literature for black pepper plants infected with Meloidogyne species was observed in our study. In general, a positive relationship between the soil and root population densities of M. incognita on black pepper plants and percentage of plants with yellow leaves was observed. However, in one district (Quang Tri) a relatively low nematode population density was associated with a high percentage of plants with yellow leaves. Five nematode species were recorded for the first time on black pepper plants in Vietnam. Our study reconfirms previous reports that Radopholus similis does not occur in Vietnam. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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