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Villaverde J.J.,Plant Protection Products Unit | Villaverde J.J.,University of La Coruna | Ligero P.,University of La Coruna | Vega A.,University of La Coruna
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2015

Fractionation of Miscanthus x giganteus stalks (without core) using an organosolv system with carboxylic acids in two stages (Acetosolv+Formacell) produced highly purified pulps with kappa number values of 7.3-15.6 and viscosities above 750cm3/g. The pulp yields were approximately 52-57%, and the brightness suffered significant decreases (1.1-8.2%) in the second stage.The influence of process variables in the Formacell extended stage was analysed by means of factorial designs of experiments. Optimised operating variables yielded acceptable pulp properties at reasonable chemical costs and mild energetic conditions.A comparison was performed of four organosolv processes with carboxylic acids in two stages (Acetosolv. +. Formacell. , Acetosolv. +. peroxyacetic acid, Acetosolv. +. ozone and peroxyformic acid in two stages as a modification of the Milox process), which exploit the solvent that impregnate the pulps after the first stage. © 2015 Elsevier B.V..

Heshof R.,Wageningen University | de Graaff L.H.,Wageningen University | Villaverde J.J.,University of Aveiro | Villaverde J.J.,Plant Protection Products Unit | And 4 more authors.
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology | Year: 2016

Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are iron- or manganese-containing oxidative enzymes found in plants, animals, bacteria and fungi. LOXs catalyze the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to the corresponding highly reactive hydroperoxides. Production of hydroperoxides by LOX can be exploited in different applications such as in bleaching of colored components, modification of lipids originating from different raw materials, production of lipid derived chemicals and production of aroma compounds. Most application research has been carried out using soybean LOX, but currently the use of microbial LOXs has also been reported. Development of LOX composition with high activity by heterologous expression in suitable production hosts would enable full exploitation of the potential of LOX derived reactions in different applications. Here, we review the biological role of LOXs, their heterologous production, as well as potential use in different applications. LOXs may fulfill an important role in the design of processes that are far more environmental friendly than currently used chemical reactions. Difficulties in screening for the optimal enzymes and producing LOX enzymes in sufficient amounts prevent large-scale application so far. With this review, we summarize current knowledge of LOX enzymes and the way in which they can be produced and applied. © 2015 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Villaverde J.J.,Plant Protection Products Unit | Sevilla-Moran B.,Plant Protection Products Unit | Sandin-Espana P.,Plant Protection Products Unit | Lopez-Goti C.,Plant Protection Products Unit | Alonso-Prados J.L.,Plant Protection Products Unit
Pest Management Science | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: The European Pesticide Regulation (EC) No. 1107/2009 encourages the use of less harmful active substances. Two main concerns involve the application of cut-off criteria for pesticides without losing tools for future agriculture (especially for minor uses) and the implementation of zonal evaluations. Biopesticides are considered to have lower risks than synthetic pesticides; consequently, there is strong interest for their use in integrated pest management practices. RESULTS: This paper provides an analysis of the current European situation, starting with the first attempts to regulate the use of plant protection products and focusing on the implications of the new legislative criteria for biopesticides. CONCLUSION: It is important to be aware that biopesticides are still pesticides and fall under the same regulations as their synthetic counterparts. Although manufacturers are still reluctant to commit to such alternatives due to difficulties with approval and registration, biopesticides could be alternatives for traditional plant protection products, either as a base for the synthesis of new products or integrated with traditional plant protection products. In addition, biopesticides have to be used only as indicated on the label, which provides critical information about how to safely handle and use plant protection products. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

Villaverde J.J.,Plant Protection Products Unit | Sandin-Espana P.,Plant Protection Products Unit | Sevilla-Moran B.,Plant Protection Products Unit | Lopez-Goti C.,Plant Protection Products Unit | Alonso-Prados J.L.,Plant Protection Products Unit
BioResources | Year: 2016

The importance of biomass as a source of chemicals, biofuels, and energy is widely accepted. Currently, the attention is mainly focused on the valorisation of by-products from lignocellulosic materials. Chemical compounds derived from plants and microorganisms that provide good protection for crops against weeds, pests, and diseases (biopesticide active substances) have been used to formulate pesticides. Their use is increasingly encouraged by new pesticide regulations that discourage the use of harmful active substances. This article reviews the current and future situation of biopesticides, especially natural chemical products, and focuses on their potential within the European pesticide legislative framework. Moreover, this article highlights the importance of the different modes/mechanisms of action of the active substances obtained from natural sources, the role of chemistry in biopesticide development, and how the adoption of integrated pest management practices contributes to a greater trend towards biopesticides.

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