Plant Protection Research Institute PPRI

Hanoi, Vietnam

Plant Protection Research Institute PPRI

Hanoi, Vietnam
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Lee H.S.,International Livestock Research Institute ILRI | Nguyen-Viet H.,International Livestock Research Institute ILRI | Lindahl J.,Kenya International Livestock Research Institute | Lindahl J.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | And 4 more authors.
World Mycotoxin Journal | Year: 2017

Vietnam is a tropical country with high temperature and precipitation, which may provide good conditions for fungal growth. A few limited studies have been conducted to evaluate the level of aflatoxin B1 in maize in Vietnam. In addition, no studies have been conducted to evaluate the perception and knowledge of aflatoxins in Vietnam. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to determine the levels of aflatoxin B1 for human and animal consumption in maize and evaluate perceptions and knowledge of aflatoxins among people across the country. A total of 2,370 samples were collected from six provinces and analysed using ELISA. Among collected samples, 799 samples (33.71%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 31.81-35.66%) and 687 samples (28.98%, 95%CI: 27.17-30.86%) had levels above 2 μg/kg and 5 μg/kg, respectively [range from below limit of detection (LOD) to 34.8 μg/kg; of the samples above LOD, the mean was 13.1 μg/kg and median was 11.2 μg/kg]. A total of 551 people were interviewed from 6 provinces. The survey showed that awareness of aflatoxins (question: Have you heard about aflatoxins?) in southern Vietnam [An Giang (25%), Dak Lak (23.23%) and Dong Nai (6%)] was relatively higher than in provinces in northern Vietnam. We believe that this analysed information can be useful to better understand the epidemiology of aflatoxins in different provinces. This study also produces evidence on potential risk to humans and animals in Vietnam as well as demographic factors (such as gender and level of education) significantly influencing knowledge of aflatoxins. In conclusion, this paper points to the importance of raising the awareness of the risks with aflatoxins, bearing in mind the gender aspect during capacity development.

Mudavanhu P.,Plant Protection Research Institute PPRI | Mudavanhu P.,Stellenbosch University | Addison P.,Stellenbosch University | Carpenter J.E.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Florida Entomologist | Year: 2016

The efficacy of the sterile insect technique (SIT) applied as part of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) depends on efficient transfer of sperm carrying dominant lethal mutations from sterile males to wild females. Success or failure of this strategy is therefore critically dependent on quality and ability of sterile males to search for and copulate with wild females. The African sugarcane borer, Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is an economic pest of sugarcane targeted for control in South Africa using an AW-IPM approach with a SIT component. As part of further steps towards development of the technique, levels of mating competitiveness and compatibility were assessed by observing the extent to which individuals from different populations interbreed when confined together under both laboratory and semi-field conditions. Three types of pair-wise competition experiments were conducted: non-irradiated laboratory adults vs. non-irradiated wild adults, irradiated (200 Gy) laboratory adults vs. non-irradiated wild adults, and non-irradiated laboratory adults vs. irradiated (200 Gy) laboratory adults. Data from these tests were used to generate indices for mating performance and measuring sexual compatibility between strains. Irrespective of trial location, wild moths did not discriminate against irradiated or laboratory-reared moths, indicating no negative effects on acceptability for mating due to laboratory rearing or radiation treatment. In general, irradiated males mated significantly more than their wild counterparts regardless of the type of female, which indicated that they were still as competitive as their wild counterparts. The mating indices generated showed no evidence of incipient pre-mating isolation barriers or sexual incompatibility with the wild strain. Data presented in this paper therefore indicate that there is scope for further development of the SIT as an addition to the arsenal of tactics available for AW-IPM of this economic pest. © International Atomic Energy Agency 2016. Published by the Florida Entomological Society. All rights reserved.

Tam L.T.T.,Plant Protection Research Institute PPRI | Dung P.N.,Plant Protection Research Institute PPRI | Liem N.V.,Plant Protection Research Institute PPRI
Plant Disease | Year: 2016

Brassica juncea (L.) Czern., belonging to the Brassicaceae, is usually consumed as a raw, fresh vegetable in the diet of Vietnamese people during the winter and spring seasons. In February 2014, powdery mildew was first observed on 80 to 100% of the area under B. juncea cultivation in Ha Noi and Lang Son. Within a week, symptoms appeared as irregular white patches on both sides of the leaves, and entire plants were affected. Economic loss was unavoidable as farmers were unable to safely spray chemicals in time to suppress the disease. Two representative specimens were deposited in the Plant Protection Research Institute Herbarium (Accession Nos. PPRI-PM033 and PPRI-PM034). Mycelia on pods, stems, and leaves were amphigenous, effuse or in patches, hyphal cells were thin-walled, smooth, hyaline. Appressoria on the hyphae were well developed, lobed, and mostly positioned in pairs. Conidiophores were cylindrical, and composed of one to four cells, and measured (81.8-)111-179.5 (-184.5) µm in length. Foot-cells were curved or straight, cylindrical, and measured 25.0 to 37.5 × 7.5 to 10.0 µm. Conidia were produced singly, were oval to cylindrical or ellipsoid, and measured 35.0 to 42.5 × 12.5 to 15.0 µm (length/width ratio of 2.6 to 3.4), and fibrosin bodies were absent. Conidia exhibited pseudoidium-type germination. No chasmothecia were found. The morphological characteristics were consistent with descriptions of Erysiphe cruciferarum Opiz ex L. Junell (Braun and Cook 2012). To confirm the identity of the fungal causal agent of the disease, the complete ITS regions of rDNA from PPRI-PM033 and PPRI-PM034 were amplified by the universal primer pairs HF1/HR4 and directly sequenced. The resulting sequence was deposited in GenBank (Accession Nos. KM260717 and KM260718). A GenBank BLAST search using the present data revealed that the ITS sequences had 100% identity with that of E. cruciferarum on Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis in China (Accession No. KC878683) (Zhao et al. 2014). Pathogenicity was confirmed through an inoculation test by gently pressing affected leaves of B. juncea onto young leaves of 10 potted three-week-old seedlings of B. juncea. Ten noninoculated seedlings were used as controls. Plants were maintained in a greenhouse at temperatures ranging from 18 to 25°C. Inoculated leaves developed symptoms after 8 days, whereas the control plants remained symptomless. The fungus observed on inoculated leaves was morphologically identical to that observed on the original diseased leaves, and the sequence of the amplicon from PCR using primers HF1/HR4 was the same, fulfilling Koch’s postulates. Erysiphe cruciferarum is also known to infect numerous host species belonging to various genera of the Capparidaceae, Fumariaceae, Papaveraceae, Resedaceae, and Brassicaceae and is almost circumglobal in range, including Africa, North and South America, Asia, Australia, Europe, New Zealand (Braun and Cook 2012). To our knowledge, this is the first report of E. cruciferarum on B. juncea in Vietnam (Farr and Rossman 2014). Climatic conditions from February to May annually are especially favorable for development and outbreak of powdery mildews. Therefore, this disease on B. juncea will be a serious threat to the agricultural production of spring-season vegetables in Vietnam. © 2016, American Phytopathological Society. All rights reserved.

Goodall J.M.,University of Witwatersrand | Goodall J.M.,Plant Protection Research Institute PPRI | Witkowski E.T.F.,University of Witwatersrand
Weed Research | Year: 2014

We report on the performance of the registered herbicides picloram and metsulfuron-methyl on the control of Campuloclinium macrocephalum (pompom weed) in grasslands. Herbicide trials in hydric and xeric grasslands were treated for three consecutive years in either summer (February) or autumn (April) and monitored for an additional 3 years after spraying ceased. Uncontrolled factors such as a host-specific rust, fire and drought were observed from the second year of the study. Metsulfuron-methyl and picloram did not differ in efficacy according to the timing of applications, but average mortality of marked plants was <80% expected of registered herbicides. Populations of C. macrocephalum in plots were reduced proportionately to the percentage mortality of marked plants. Picloram and metsulfuron-methyl applied at 252 g a.i. ha-1 and 45 g a.i. ha-1, respectively, were not detectable by gas chromatography in the upper 25 cm of the soil profile during any of the sampling intervals from 0 to 56 days after treatment. Three annual applications of registered herbicide did not reduce C. macrocephalum successfully, and it is estimated that between five (summer) to seven (autumn) annual treatments are required to reduce weed density to <1 plant per plot (25 m2). Future research should focus on rust-herbicide interactions, the role of fire in seedbank management and fire as a treatment that could be integrated with chemical control. © 2014 European Weed Research Society.

Goodall J.,University of Witwatersrand | Goodall J.,Plant Protection Research Institute PPRI | Witkowski E.T.F.,University of Witwatersrand | McConnachie A.J.,Plant Protection Research Institute PPRI | Keen C.,P.O. Box 245
Biological Invasions | Year: 2012

The alien forb Campuloclinium macrocephalum (Less.) DC. (Asteraceae, pompom weed) invades disturbed rangelands in South Africa. After >40 years of naturalisation, infestations around Pretoria were severely damaged in 2006 by the biotrophic rust Puccinia eupatorii Dietel (Pucciniaceae). The disease spread rapidly and has now established at most pompom weed infestations in the country. This study reports on the efficacy of the pathogen as a biocontrol agent of pompom weed, its effect on the retention of the weed's realised niche and tolerance to the disease. Eighty rangeland infestations originally assessed over two years in 2003 and 2004 were re-surveyed in 2009. Data from untreated plots at two pompom weed experimental sites where the rust was first detected were also used. Puccinia eupatorii induced premature senescence in late summer and stimulated the production of compensatory growth in autumn. Plants without disease symptoms senesced in late autumn without compensatory growth and remained dormant throughout winter. Pompom weed density did not change significantly over time in both the rangeland study and untreated plots. Disease incidence in rangelands in 2009 was most severe in dense infestations, with sparse infestations having the highest incidence of natural senescence and fewer pustules. The rust did not reduce the realised niche; infestations in grasslands, savanna and wetlands persisted despite significant damage by the disease. Persistence, despite high annual stem mortality, suggests that pompom weed remains adapted to the fungus after prolonged separation from the disease. This study supports earlier findings that disturbance remains key to pompom weed invasion even under biological control. The rust may enhance the biological control of pompom weed with augmentation of additional insect agents, but is unlikely to inflict a significant reduction in the weed's population on its own. This may be an important consideration for the biological control of weeds involving biotrophic fungi. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Ta H.-A.,Plant Protection Research Institute PPRI | Nguyen D.-P.,Plant Protection Research Institute PPRI | Causse S.,IRD Montpellier | Nguyen T.-D.,IRD Montpellier | And 2 more authors.
Virus Genes | Year: 2013

Rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV, Tenuivirus) recently emerged on rice in Vietnam, causing high yield losses during 2006-2009. The genetic diversity of RGSV is poorly documented. In this study, the two genes encoded by each ambisense segment RNA3 and RNA5 of RGSV isolates from six provinces of South Vietnam were sequenced. P3 and Pc3 (RNA3) have unknown function, P5 (RNA5) encodes the putative silencing suppressor, and Pc5 (RNA5) encodes the nucleocapsid protein (N). The sequences of 17 Vietnamese isolates were compared with reference isolates from North and South Philippines. The average nucleotide diversity among the isolates was low. We confirmed a higher variability of RNA3 than RNA5 and Pc3 than P3. No relationships between the genetic diversity and the geographic distribution of RGSV isolates could be ascertained, likely because of the long-distance migration of the insect vector. This data will contribute to a better understanding on the RGSV epidemiology in South Vietnam, a prerequisite for further management of the disease and rice breeding for resistance. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

PubMed | IRD Montpellier, Hanoi University of Science and Plant Protection Research Institute PPRI
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Virus genes | Year: 2015

In Vietnam, the two main viruses that cause disease in rice are the Rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV) and the Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV). Outbreaks of these two viruses have dramatically decreased rice production in Vietnam. Because natural resistance genes are unknown, an RNAi strategy may be an alternative method to develop resistance to RGSV and RRSV. However, this strategy will be efficient only if putative silencing suppressors encoded by the two viruses are neutralized. To identify these suppressors, we used the classical green fluorescent protein (GFP) agroinfiltration method in Nicotiana benthamiana. Then, we investigated the effects of viral candidate proteins on GFP expression and GFP siRNA accumulation and their interference with the short- or long-range signal of silencing. RGSV genes s2gp1, s5gp2, and s6gp1 and RRSV genes s5gp1, s6gp1, s9gp1, and s10gp1 were selected for viral silencing suppressor investigation according to their small molecular weight, the presence of cysteines, or the presence of a GW motif in related protein products. We confirmed that protein p6 of RRSV displays mild silencing suppressor activity and affects long-range silencing by delaying the systemic silencing signal. In addition, we identified two new silencing suppressors that displayed mild activity: p2 of RGSV and p9 of RRSV.

Jansen R.,Tshwane University of Technology | Makaka L.,Tshwane University of Technology | Little I.T.,University of Cape Town | Dippenaar-Schoeman A.,Plant Protection Research Institute PPRI | Dippenaar-Schoeman A.,University of Pretoria
Insect Conservation and Diversity | Year: 2013

Frequent and extensive burning practices coupled with intensive grazing management are known to impact negatively on the vegetation diversity of grassland ecosystems. Few studies have investigated the impacts on spider diversity and community structure as a result of these management practices, and no studies have been conducted in high mountain grasslands on how these spider assemblages are influenced by this form of management. Here, we present the results of a study conducted in the Mpumalanga grasslands on the eastern escarpment of South Africa. Ground-dwelling spiders were sampled in the summer season from 180 pit-fall traps in five study sites that varied from either being burnt annually and grazed heavily, burnt biennially and conservatively grazed, to communal land with no set management practice. Variations between sites were assessed and based on spider species composition and assemblage structure. A total of 1145 individuals were collected representing 86 species from 60 genera and 43 families. Our results show that a majority of genera in these grasslands were represented by very few individuals, where a total of 37 species were represented by singletons and 17 species that were doubletons. The most abundant families were the Lycosidae (64.3%), Gnaphosidae (9.0%), Zodariidae (5.3%), Linyphiidae (4.7%) and Salticidae (3.1%). Grazing intensity and fire frequency had no measurable effect on ground-dwelling spider abundance diversity or assemblage structure. Only when rare or single species occurrence was included, was there some form of association with sites. This study has provided for the first preliminary inventory of ground-dwelling spiders for this habitat. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

PubMed | University of Missouri, Plant Protection Research Institute PPRI, Urbana University and U.S. Department of Agriculture
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Resistance to soybean rust (SBR), caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd. & Syd., has been identified in many soybean germplasm accessions and is conferred by either dominant or recessive genes that have been mapped to six independent loci (Rpp1 -Rpp6), but No U.S. cultivars are resistant to SBR. The cultivar DT 2000 (PI 635999) has resistance to P. pachyrhizi isolates and field populations from the United States as well as Vietnam. A F6:7 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from Williams 82 DT 2000 was used to identify genomic regions associated with resistance to SBR in the field in Ha Noi, Vietnam, and in Quincy, Florida, in 2008. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) was conducted using the soybean single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) USLP 1.0 panel along with simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to detect regions of the genome associated with resistance. BSA identified four BARC_SNP markers near the Rpp3 locus on chromosome (Chr.) 6. Genetic analysis identified an additional genomic region around the Rpp4 locus on Chr. 18 that was significantly associated with variation in the area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) values and sporulation in Vietnam. Molecular markers tightly linked to the DT 2000 resistance alleles on Chrs. 6 and 18 will be useful for marker-assisted selection and backcrossing in order to pyramid these genes with other available SBR resistance genes to develop new varieties with enhanced and durable resistance to SBR.

Tam L.T.T.,Plant Protection Research Institute PPRI | Thanh H.M.,Plant Protection Research Institute PPRI | Tuyen N.H.,Plant Protection Research Institute PPRI | Dung P.N.,Plant Protection Research Institute PPRI | And 2 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2016

In a survey of powdery mildews in Viet Nam in 2013, Erysiphales specimens were found on bellyache bush (Jatropha gossypifolia). The plants were grown as an ornamental houseplant or as a hedge in Ha Noi. The incidence of disease was approximately 90 to 100% of leaves at multiple locations in Ha Noi. Within three weeks of first detection of the disease, almost all surfaces of leaves were covered by the white fungal growth. The disease became severe during August 2014, reducing the esthetic value of infected plants, with most being unmarketable. A representative specimen was deposited in the PPRI Herbarium (Accession No. PPRI-PM057). Conidiophores were 100 to 137.5 μm long. Foot-cells of conidiophores were 75 to 95 × 10 to 12.5 μm long. Conidia produced singly were variable in shape, 35 to 40 × 20 to 22.5 μm with a length/width ratio of 1.8 to 1.9, with distinct fibrosin bodies. Conidia germinated with brevitubus subtype of Fibroidium type germ tubes. No chasmothecia were found. The morphological characteristics were consistent with descriptions of Podosphaera xanthii (Castagne) U. Braun & Shishkoff, 2000 (Braun and Cook, 2012). To confirm the identity of the causal fungus, the complete ITS region of rDNA from isolate PPRI- PM057 was amplified by primer pairs ITS1/P3 (White et al. 1990; Kusaba and Tsuge 1995) and directly sequenced. The resulting sequence was deposited in GenBank (Accession No. KM260741). A BLAST search of this sequence showed 100% identity with several P. xanthii isolates from various families of host plants (e.g., AB046985 and AB040339). Pathogenicity was confirmed by gently pressing diseased leaves of bellyache bush onto young leaves of three one-year-old seedlings of J. gossypifolia in a glass house maintained at 27 to 28°C. Three noninoculated seedlings were used as controls. Inoculated leaves developed symptoms after 10 days, whereas the control plants remained symptomless. The fungus present on the inoculated leaves was morphologically identical to that observed on the original diseased leaves, with the same ITS sequence, fulfilling Koch’s postulates. According to Braun and Cook (2012), there has only been one report of a powdery mildew on a Jatropha sp., which was Erysiphe jatrophae in South Africa. To our knowledge, this is the first report of powdery mildew caused by P. xanthii on bellyache bush in Viet Nam. This disease seems to be a serious threat to the commercial production of bellyache bush plants. Moreover, the disease on this host could be a potential source in inoculum for cucurbits in Viet Nam. © The American Phytopathological Society.

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