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Muenworn V.,Kasetsart University | Duvallet G.,Montpellier University | Thainchum K.,Kasetsart University | Tuntakom S.,Kasetsart University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Medical Entomology

Stomoxyine flies (Stomoxys spp.) were collected in 10 localities of Thailand using the Vavoua traps. These localities represented four major ecological settings, as follows: small local dairy farms, large industrial dairy farms, a national park, and one elephant conservation area. Three species of stable flies were identified in the following proportions: Stomoxys calcitrans (91.5%), Stomoxys indicus (7.9%), and Stomoxys sitiens (0.6%). The number of flies collected differed significantly among collection sites (= 360.15, df = 3, P < 0.05). The greatest number of stomoxyine flies was captured in dairy farms, Seasonal and daily activity of S. calcitrans was observed during a 1-yr period at two selected locations (Dairy Farming Promotion Organization of Thailand and Khao Kheow Open Zoo). S. calcitrans was more abundant during the rainy season (MarchSeptember), but was not associated with the total rainfall (r= 0.0002, P > 0.05). Peak of daily flight activity of males S. calcitrans was at 1000 and 1600 h, whereas females showed an increase of activity all along the day until 1600 h. A better understanding of stomoxyine fly behavior related to patterns of daily activity will facilitate and improve the efficiency of fly control measures in private and government sectors. © 2010 Entomological Society of America. Source

Tainchum K.,Kasetsart University | Tainchum K.,Center for Agricultural Biotechnology PERDO CHE | Sukonthabhirom S.,Office of Plant Protection Research and Development | Duvallet G.,CNRS Center of Evolutionary and Functional Ecology | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Economic Entomology

Starch gel electrophoresis of isozymes was used to estimate gene flow among nine populations of Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) from Thailand. Of the 13 putative loci, nine polymorphic loci were detected. Limited genetic differentiation among populations was observed (FST = 0.060). The highest level of polymorphism was observed in flies from eastern Trat and northern Chiang Mai provinces (69.2%), whereas the lowest level of polymorphism was seen in flies from central Saraburi Province (23.1%). Gene flow between populations varied from 3.27 to 27.53 reproductive migrants per generation. Among the nine populations sampled, no correlation was seen between genetic and geographical distances showing that sampled S. calcitrans fit closely in the same cluster taxa. The electrophoresis of ten isozymes shows a genetic homogeneity of S. calcitrans populations at the scale of Thailand. © 2010 Entomological Society of America. Source

Keawrayup S.,Kasetsart University | Duvallet G.,CNRS Center of Evolutionary and Functional Ecology | Sukonthabhirom S.,Office of Plant Protection Research and Development | Chareonviriyaphap T.,Kasetsart University

A study of species diversity of Stomoxys spp. and diurnal variations of activity of the most abundant was performed during a one year period at a local dairy cattle farm in Wang Nam Khiao District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. Four species of stomoxyine flies were morphologically identified, including Stomoxys indicus Picard 1908, S. calcitrans (Linnaeus 1758), S. sitiens Rondani 1873 and S. uruma Shinonaga and Kanao 1966. The most common species were S. indicus (50.2 %) and S. calcitrans (49.5 %). S. sitiens and S. uruma were found in small proportions (< 1 %). The number of flies captured was significantly different among the three seasons with the greatest number in the rainy season (mean = 66 %; df = 2, P < 0.05). The variations of diurnal activity were observed during different period of times (06:00 to 18:00) during three seasons. Both sexes of S. indicus and males of S. calcitrans showed unimodal activity pattern in cool and summer seasons. But a bimodal activity pattern was recorded in rainy season. For females S. calcitrans, a unimodal peak of activity was observed in cool season and a constant variation of activity all along the day in summer and rainy seasons, with an increase from the morning to the evening. A better understanding of stomoxyine fly behavior, especially the daily flight activity, can assist in prioritization and design of appropriate vector prevention and control strategies. Source

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