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Matyaszek A.,Institute of Plant Protection National Research Institute
Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny

Poland is a leading grower/producer of berries in Europe that are either eaten raw or processed. As well as berries this includes fruit such as grapes, strawberries and other small fruits. Testing for the presence of active substances in Plant Protection Products, (PPP), in such fruit is however important, as part of measures taken to minimise human intake. To determine the incidence of pesticide residues in berries harvested from South-Eastern Poland in 2009-2011. . Chromatographic separation followed by analytical detection was performed on 250 samples of various test fruits using an accredited methodology: GC/ECD/NPD, together with spectrophotometric detection wherever necessary, according to PN-EN ISO/IEC 17025. As part of previous monitoring, 126 active substances were identified in 2009, 132 in 2010 and 153 in 2011; levels were compared to Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs). RESULTS;. Analyses showed that 46.4% of samples contained PPPs of which 4% exceeded the MRL. The most were found in raspberries, (58.8% of all tested), followed by 58.3% redcurrants, and gooseberries as well as 50% grapes. The most frequently found active substances of PPPs were pyrimethanil (15.6%), dithiocarbamates (12.4%), procymidone (8%), cyprodinil (5.6%) and difenoconazole (5.2%). The highest MRL exceedances were found in blackcurrants. Testing also revealed many examples of pesticides not recommended for the protection of specific crops: propiconazole in gooseberries, cyprodinil, flusilazole, iprodione, pyrimethanil in blackcurrants and folpet and captan in raspberries. Furthermore, active substances whose use in PPPs have been forbidden since 2008 were also detected, ie. endosulfan in blackcurrants and strawberries, fenitrothion in black and red currants as well as procymidone in raspberries, blackcurrants and strawberries. These data are consistent to those obtained from the whole of Poland and the European Union (EU). Most pesticides were present in raspberries, redcurrants, gooseberries and grapes of which fungicides were the most frequently detected. These results are in keeping with other similar studies. Source

Szpyrka E.,Institute of Plant Protection National Research Institute
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

Plant protection products are widely used throughout the world in order to prevent a reduction in yield. Although the protection of plants brings many benefits, pesticides are toxic to the environment and to humans. To protect human health, pesticide residue risk assessment should be carried out. The aim of the study was to assess acute risk related to the improper use of pesticides. In 2010–2013, 878 crop samples: 382 fruits, 399 vegetables, 82 cereals and their products, 11 herbs and 4 seeds were tested. Pesticide residues were found in 240 samples (27.3 %). Pesticide residues were found most frequently in: fruits (41.6 % fruit samples), seed (25.0 %), vegetables (19.3 %) and herbs (9.1 %), and least frequently in cereals and their products (2.4 %). Improper pesticide use was determined for 49 samples, mainly for vegetables (24 samples) and fruits (22). Most irregularities associated with the use of plant protection products involved application of a substance not recommended for a given crop (36 samples). In nine samples, applications of plant protection products that were withdrawn from the market were found, and in seven samples, violations of maximum residue levels were determined. Despite there being cases of improper use of plant protection products, no hazard to consumer health was determined. The highest values of short-term exposure were obtained in the case of consumption of blackcurrants with iprodione—a substance not recommended in Poland for protection of blackcurrants (4.3 % acceptable daily intake (ADI), adults; 6.8 % ADI, children). Since potential consumer risk caused by pesticide residues could not be ruled out, inspections should be carried out continuously. © 2014, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source

A triple quadrupole GC-QqQ-MS/MS method was optimized for multiresidue analysis of over 180 pesticides in blackcurrants. The samples were prepared by using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) analytical protocol. To reduce matrix co-extractives in the final extract, the supernatant was cleaned up by dispersive-solid phase extraction (dispersive-SPE) with a mixture of sorbents: primary secondary amine (PSA), octadecyl (C18) and graphitized carbon black (GCB). The validation results demonstrated fitness for purpose of the streamlined method. The overall recoveries at the three spiking levels of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.2 mg kg-1 spanned between 70% and 116% (102% on average) with relative standard deviation (RSD) values between 3% and 19% except for chlorothalonil (23%). Response linearity was studied in the range between 0.005 and 0.5 mg kg-1. The matrix effect for each individual compound was evaluated through the study of ratios of the slopes obtained in solvent and blackcurrant matrix. The optimized method provided small matrix effect (<10%) for 77% of the compounds, whereas only for 14%, 5% and 4% compounds, the matrix effect was 10-20%, 20-30% and >30%, respectively. Following the application of "top-down" approach, the expanded measurement uncertainty was estimated as being 21% on average (coverage factor k=2, confidence level 95%). If compared with samples of other crops, the analyses of blackcurrants revealed a high percentage of exceedance of the legislative maximum residue levels (MRLs), as well as some instances of the detection of pesticides unapproved on this crop. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Slowik-Borowiec M.,Institute of Plant Protection National Research Institute
Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part B Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes

Dissipation of simultaneously applied insecticides alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin was studied in a minor crop, aboveground part of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.). A validated gas chromatographic method (GC-ECD/NPD) was used to determine insecticide residues. Analytical performances were very satisfactory, with expanded uncertainties not higher than 14% (coverage factor k = 2, confidence level 95%). Dissipation of alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in white mustard followed first-order kinetics (R2 between 0.953 and 0.995), with half-lives of 3.1–4.6 and 2.9–3.7 days respectively. Based on the results of this two-year study and the relevant residue regulation, alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin treatments can be considered safe for crop protection, feeding animals and the environment. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC Source

Kowalska J.,Institute of Plant Protection National Research Institute
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section B: Soil and Plant Science

Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is a very difficult crop to cultivate organically. Only few organic methods are effective in reducing damage from insects and diseases. The current investigation assessed the use of the beneficial ascomycete Trichoderma asperellum (Samuels, Lieckf & Nirenberg) and a trap crop of Brassica rapa L. turnip rape cv. "Brachina," both with and without an application of slurry fertilizer, for pest suppression and yield enhancement of winter oilseed rape cv. "Californium." The presence of the trap crop significantly increased 1000 grain weight but not total yield or lipid content of the oilseed rape because turnip rape was not attractive enough to prevent colonization of the principal crop. Increase in 1000 grain weight, lipid content, and total seed yield were found in oilseed rape sprayed with three applications of T. asperellum, but the ascomycete had no influence on the insect pests observed. The effects of the fertilizer are about equal to the effects of the fungus on 1000 grain weight and on lipid content. © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Source

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