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Kaczynski P.,Plant Protection Institute National Research Institute | Lozowicka B.,Plant Protection Institute National Research Institute | Hrynko I.,Plant Protection Institute National Research Institute | Wolejko E.,University of Bialystok
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to investigate the dissipation of mesotrione and effect on dehydrogenase activity (DHA) in maize and soil system. The paper for the first time describes behaviour of this herbicide applied at various doses (separately or in mixture with other herbicide) in acidic and alkaline environment. The experiments were conducted using the method randomized blocks in four repetition cycles. Chemical application in seven variants at recommended doses of herbicide were performed. The sample preparation was performed by a modified QuEChERS method and the concentrations of mesotrione in maize and soil were determined by the liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The limit of detection was 0.0005 mg kg− 1 and quantification 0.001 mg kg− 1. The dissipation of mesotrione were described according to first-order (FO) kinetics equation with R2 were between 0.8794 and 0.9934. The initial deposit of herbicide in soil and maize was higher in an acidic environment (0.06–0.18 mg kg− 1). A positive correlation between an alkaline pH and the rate of dissipation in soil was observed. The results showed that the time after which 50% (DT50) of substance has been degraded was different for both plant and soil. DT50 for soil was within the range 3.2–6.0 days and 2.9–4.4 days, for the maize 3.9–4.8 days and 3.4–4.5 days in an alkaline and an acidic environment, respectively. Concentration of mesotrione at applicable MRL level of 0.05 mg kg− 1 in maize was achieved at 0.5–5.9 days and at proposed MRL of 0.01 mg kg− 1 at 8.8–15.8 days. The results indicate that the application of mesotrione affected on DHA in the soil. One day after application this herbicide, concentration of DHA in soil was lower than in control plots, but after 21 days was observed trend of increasing DHA. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Matyjaszczyk E.,Plant Protection Institute National Research Institute
Pest Management Science | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Integrated pest management (IPM) will be obligatory in all European Union (EU) member states from January 1, 2014. Successful IPM implementation will depend not only on the sound guidelines and goodwill of the farmers, but also on conditions in farmers' environment. RESULTS: This paper presents the most important factors influencing IPM implementation in Poland. CONCLUSION: The most favorable aspects on the eve of obligatory IPM implementation are the relatively low use of plant protection products and popularity of some non-chemical methods of pest control, such as sowing cereal in mixture. The most important challenges are the improvement of advisory service and the crop structure with almost three-quarters of sown area covered by cereals. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

Marta B.,Plant Protection Institute National Research Institute | Henryk P.,Plant Protection Institute National Research Institute | Aleksandra O.-S.,Plant Protection Institute National Research Institute
Journal of Phytopathology | Year: 2016

The genome sequences of two Polish Kra and Ros isolates of Tomato torrado virus (ToTV) were determined and compared with data of previously described ToTV isolates and other Torradovirus members. Whole-genome sequence comparisons revealed 97.0-99.6% nucleotide sequence identities and close relatedness, with other known ToTV isolates. The high homology between Kra, Ros and Wal'03 ToTVs is likely responsible for the similar symptoms observed on infected plants. However, the symptoms differed in intensity and various host specificity. We report that Kra ToTV caused a milder expression of symptoms on Solanum tuberosum than Wal'03. We hypothesize this may be a result of the significant variability observed within the 3′-UTR of RNA1 of Kra as well as of Ros ToTV isolates. In the light of this fact, potato may be considered an indicator plant for distinguishing Kra and Wal'03 ToTV isolates. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Pernak J.,Poznan University of Technology | Wasinski K.,Poznan University of Technology | Praczyk T.,Plant Protection Institute National Research Institute | Nawrot J.,Plant Protection Institute National Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Science China Chemistry | Year: 2012

In this paper, we show that sweet quaternary ammonium, pyridinium, and imidazolium cyclamates are cheap, thermally stable, surface and biologically active ionic liquids, with potential application as feeding deterrents. © Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012.

Lozowicka B.,Plant Protection Institute National Research Institute | Jankowska M.,Plant Protection Institute National Research Institute | Kaczynski P.,Plant Protection Institute National Research Institute
Food Control | Year: 2012

The presence of pesticide residues in Brassica vegetables (365 samples) produced in north-eastern Poland (2006-2009) was determined and their health risks assessed. The analytical procedure was developed to examine of 130 pesticides of different chemical classes (chloroorganic, phosphoroorganic, carbamates, strobilurines, neonicotinoids, amides, pyrimidines, benzimidazoles, imidazoles and triazoles) in broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, head and Chinese cabbage. Pesticides were extracted using matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) with dual detection system: electron capture (ECD) and nitrogen-phosphorus (NPD). Linearity (R 2≥0.997) was good over the concentration range from 2.5 to 0.001mg/kg for all the pesticides, and instrumental detection limits ranged from 0.001 to 0.01mg/kg. Mean recoveries for vegetables spiked at three fortification levels (0.001-2.5mg/kg) ranged from 70.07 to 118.90%. Relative standard deviations ranged from 0.15 to 8.58%, except: dicofol, pyridaben (acaricides), dichloran (fungicide), isofenphos, triasophos (insecticides) where mean recoveries were above 120% (122.2-127%) and also dichlofluanid, tecnazene (fungicides), dichlobenil (herbicide), endosulfan-sulfate, phorate, phosmet (insecticides) with mean recoveries below 70% (42.83-69.1%). The method used to monitor pesticide residues in vegetables. Fifteen different pesticides (insecticides mainly) were detected in 118 samples (32%), while multiple pesticides (more than one pesticide residue) in about 4% samples. Chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were the most commonly detected pesticides. Chlorpyrifos was present in 27.4% items and ranged from 0.005 to 1.51mg/kg, while cypermethrin were detected in 3.3% samples and ranged from 0.02 to 0.19mg/kg. Thirty-three (9%) samples exceeded the maximum residue levels (MRLs). The dietary intake of residues of some pesticides can pose acute hazards. Data obtained were then used for estimating the potential health risks associated with the exposures to these pesticides. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) ranged from 0.005% of the ADI (acceptable daily intake) for fenhexamid to 4.454% of the ADI for diazinon. Combine cumulative exposure for chlorpyrifos detected on Brassica were 0.777% of ADI. The results show that occurrence of pesticide residues in Brassica vegetables from this region could not be considered a serious public health problem. Nevertheless, an investigation into continuous monitoring and tighter regulation of pesticide residues in vegetables is recommended. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Matyjaszczyk E.,Plant Protection Institute National Research Institute
Outlook on Agriculture | Year: 2011

Accession to the European Union (EU) had an impact on the Polish agricultural sector. Plant protection was influenced mainly by the implementation of EU law as well as the demand and prices of the Common Market. This paper describes the present status of plant protection and the registration of plant protection products in Poland, with particular regard to changes that took place during the first five years of Polish membership of the EU (1 May 2004-30 April 2009).

Lozowicka B.,Plant Protection Institute National Research Institute | Jankowska M.,Plant Protection Institute National Research Institute | Rutkowska E.,Plant Protection Institute National Research Institute | Kaczynski P.,Plant Protection Institute National Research Institute | Hrynko I.,Plant Protection Institute National Research Institute
Polish Journal of Environmental Studies | Year: 2012

Interest in the determination and screening of pesticide residues in soil is caused by widespread use of chemical pesticides in agriculture, which increase soil contamination. Two extraction techniques, matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of residual pesticides (acaricides, insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides) from soil were compared. Advantages and disadvantages of both approaches were discussed. Pesticides from different chemical classes (organohalogen, organophosphorus, carbamates, pyrethroids, strobilurines, triazoles) were quantified by GC with a dual system detection - electron capture (EC) and/or nitrogen-phosphorus (NP). The MSPD was validated by comparing it with conventional LLE. Recovery studies were carried out at three levels: 1) ranged between 0.005-0.05 mg/kg, 2) 0.05-0.5 mg/kg, and 3) 0.25-2.5 mg/kg and average recoveries obtained for these compounds ranged from 72.4 to 120% for MSPD and 70.6-120% for LLE with relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 20%. Both methods were linear over the range assayed, 0.005-2.5 mg/kg. The uncertainties of the analytical methods were lower than 25.6% and 30%, with and without recovery correction, respectively. The rapid and practical MSPD technique has found a particular application in determining 147 pesticide residues of different physicochemical properties in soil with satisfactory validation parameters. The study estimated that MSPD has significant advantages over LLE because, coupled with simultaneous stage of purification, it allowed for a radical reduction time of analysis and its cost. MSPD fulfilled the requirements of multiresidue techniques. The method is reliable and can be useful for routine monitoring in soil.

Lozowicka B.,Plant Protection Institute National Research Institute | Kaczynski P.,Plant Protection Institute National Research Institute
Pest Management Science | Year: 2013

Background: Alpha-asarone (2,4,5-trimethoxypropenylbenzene) derivatives represent a new series of compounds that possess good antifeedant activity against different stored-product pests. Results: A total of 23 novel alpha-asarone derivatives were synthesised and identified by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and IR, and their feeding deterrent activities were tested against Sitophilus granarius L., Trogoderma granarium Ev. and Tribolium confusum Duv. Ten compounds showed strong antifeedant activities. Conclusion: Some of the title compounds displayed very good and broad-spectrum activities against adult and larval Coleoptera. The results indicate that the presence of a double bond in the side chain and three methoxy groups is important for antifeedant activity. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

Lozowicka B.,Plant Protection Institute National Research Institute
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2013

A simple multiresidue method based on matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) combined with clean-up has been developed for the simultaneous screening of 153 pesticides in honeybees suspected of suffering from pesticide poisoning during field spraying. Extraction and clean-up were carried out in a glass column containing anhydrous sulphate, 2.0. g of octadecyl (C18) and a 2.0-g sample of bees (23 insects on average) macerated with 4.0. g of Florisil. An additional layer of anhydrous sodium sulphate was added, and acetonitrile was used as the elution solvent. This combination of clean-up steps ensured an efficient purification. A gas chromatograph with dual selective detectors for electron capture and nitrogen-phosphorous was used. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) with the one-step clean-up procedure is the most effective extraction technique. MSPD method recoveries ranged from 70 to 118%, with precision values expressed as a relative standard of <20%, except for 10 pesticides that had recoveries of 50-70% and two with 120-130%. Low limits of detection (0.003-0.04. μg/g) and quantification (0.005-0.05. μg/g) were readily achieved with this method for all tested pesticides. A "top down" empirical model was used to estimate the expanded uncertainty at 28% on average (coverage factor k=2, confidence level 95%). The MSPD method was successfully used on real bee samples to analyse four acaricides, 55 fungicides, 16 herbicides and 78 insecticides from various regions of Poland. A total of 33 honeybee samples from suspected pesticide poisoning incidents were analysed, in which 17 different pesticides were determined (14 insecticides and three fungicides). The pesticides most often found in honeybees were cypermethrin (in 51% of the samples, 0.008-0.563. μg/bee), chlorpyrifos (27%, 0.001-51.5. μg/bee) and biphentin (21%, 0.002-0.012. μg/bee). © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Matyjaszczyk E.,Plant Protection Institute National Research Institute
Pest Management Science | Year: 2015

Prevention methods can still be a cost-effective and efficient tool for pest control. Rational use of prevention methods is a feasible way to reduce dependency on chemical protection in agriculture. Costs, workload and farmers' awareness are key issues, however. In Poland, crop rotation is used as a method for pest control only to a limited extent owing to the high share of cereals in the crop structure. The choice of resistant varieties is satisfactory, but farmers should make use of qualified seed material more often. Liming is recommended on the majority of farms on account of widespread soil acidity. Favourable aspects as regards the prevention of pest development are biodiversity and the popularity of prevention cultivation techniques. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

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