Rotorua, New Zealand
Rotorua, New Zealand

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Gaskin R.E.,Plant Protection Chemistry NZ | Logan D.P.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | May W.,Spray tec | Rowe C.A.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | And 3 more authors.
New Zealand Plant Protection | Year: 2012

A novel option for control of passionvine hopper (PVH, Scolypopa australis) and chorus cicada (Amphipsalta zelandica) on kiwifruit was investigated. This involved applying an insecticide to PVH and cicada egg sites in the dormant kiwifruit canopy, using a new type of adjuvant that allows sprays to penetrate into egg nests laid in canes and old fruit stalks. Five treatments of bifenthrin at 100 g/ha (1 litre/ha Talstar® 100EC) and preferred combinations of nozzle type, spray application volume and Engulf™ adjuvant rate were applied to dormant canes of Hayward kiwifruit in early August 2011. Water soluble blue dye added to all spray treatments penetrated into nests and stained PVH and cicada eggs when assessed shortly after application. All treatments significantly reduced hatch of PVH relative to the untreated control, by 85-99.5%. One treatment significantly reduced cicada hatch by approximately 80% relative to the control. © 2012 New Zealand Plant Protection Society (Inc.).

McKenna C.,New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research | Gaskin R.,Plant Protection Chemistry NZ | Horgan D.,Plant Protection Chemistry NZ | Dobson S.,New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research | Jia Y.,New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research
New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science | Year: 2013

Spirotetramat (Movento®) is a phloem-and xylem-mobile insecticide developed and registered for use pre-flowering to control armoured scale insects on kiwifruit vines in New Zealand. In a field study in 2010-11, the effectiveness of a postharvest application was investigated. A single spray of spirotetramat plus adjuvant(s) reduced the percentage of scale-infested fruit from 49% on control vines to less than 7.5% on spirotetramat-sprayed vines 12 months later. No residues were detected in the fruit. Applying spirotetramat with a penetrating adjuvant (Engulf®) provided the best result, with only 1.5% of the fruit infested. Despite the high pest pressure, counts of scale insect crawlers on sticky bands remained very low for 18 months after treatment. Uptake of spirotetramat into the mature kiwifruit leaves occurred in less than 24 h and was not affected by leaf age. Translocation out of the leaf was slow and decreased with leaf age, indicating that a postharvest spray should not be applied to canopies exhibiting advanced senescence. These results show that a single postharvest application of spirotetramat plus adjuvant(s) can provide excellent season-long control of armoured scale insects on kiwifruit while minimizing the risk to crop pollinators and the potential for residues in fruit. © 2013 The Royal Society of New Zealand.

Gaskin R.E.,Plant Protection Chemistry NZ | Manktelow D.W.,Manktelow and Asociates Ltd | Cook S.,Kiwifruit Vine Health | May W.A.,Spray tec | Van Leeuwen R.M.,Plant Protection Chemistry NZ
New Zealand Plant Protection | Year: 2013

A study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of canopy density on eficiency of spray deposition on kiwifruit pergola canopies. A dense canopy was pruned to also provide medium and lighter density canopies. Airblast sprays (water + luorescent dye) were applied in typical dilute application volumes to the three canopies. Deposits were measured at four height positions through the canopy in both the centre-of-row and leader zones. Mean deposits on the dense canopy (at 2000 litres/ha) were inadequate and lowest in all zones; approximately 40% less than the medium (1500 litres/ha) and light (1000 litres/ha) canopies. This suggests dense pergola canopies cannot be adequately covered by protectant sprays applied in the typical dilute volumes used by the kiwifruit industry, even with good sprayer setup. Spray deposits on all foliage zones in the medium and light canopies were generally acceptable conirming that pergola canopies can be fully protected with groundapplied sprays if they are managed to reduce their density. © 2013 New Zealand Plant Protection Society.

Gaskin R.E.,Plant Protection Chemistry NZ | Horgan D.B.,Plant Protection Chemistry NZ | Van Leeuwen R.M.,Plant Protection Chemistry NZ | Manktelow D.W.,Applied Research and Technologies Ltd
New Zealand Plant Protection | Year: 2010

Spirotetramat (Movento®is a systemic insecticide that can control scale insects on kiwifruit. It must be tank-mixed with a spray adjuvant to maximise leaf uptake. This study investigated how two adjuvants, a penetrating oil and a superspreader, affected spray retention and uptake of spirotetramat into kiwifruit leaves, from dilute and concentrated spray mixes. Spray retention and distribution of airblast-applied, high volume, dilute sprays containing the oil adjuvant were good, but retention was reduced when sprays were concentrated. Concentrated sprays, containing the superspreader adjuvant, were retained and distributed similarly to the dilute sprays containing oil adjuvant. Spirotetramat uptake into foliage was generally low, but was greater with the oil penetrant than with the superspreader. Concentrating sprays and increasing adjuvant concentrations could increase insecticide uptake, as could combining the two adjuvants together in a spray. The potential of the adjuvants to maximise spirotetramat efficacy in concentrate sprays and to reduce residues at harvest is discussed.

Gaskin R.,Plant Protection Chemistry NZ | Steele K.,Plant Protection Chemistry NZ | Kimberley M.,Scion Research
New Zealand Journal of Forestry | Year: 2013

Pre-plant control of weeds is essential for survival and growth of forest crops. Aircraft flying time is the biggest cost in control operations, and aerial herbicide programmes are often hindered by poor flying conditions. Anything which reduces essential flying time is likely to benefit forest operations. Organosilicone penetrant adjuvants are routinely used in pre-plant herbicide sprays, but their potential to increase the efficiency of weed control operations has not been fully exploited by the forest industry. Studies carried out in commercial forests in the Bay of Plenty in 2011 and 2012 confirmed that current typical spray application volumes used to apply pre-plant herbicides, for example 100 litres per hectare, could be lowered by up to 50 per cent with no loss of efficacy by increasing the use rate of organosilicone adjuvant. Lowering the application volumes used to apply sprays increases the productivity of aerial spray programmes, and this should result in substantial cost savings. In addition, spray application can be accomplished faster, allowing pilots to exploit ideal flying conditions and forest managers to improve the timeliness of pre-plant spray operations.

Rolando C.,Scion Research | Gaskin R.,Plant Protection Chemistry NZ | Horgan D.,Plant Protection Chemistry NZ | Williams N.,Scion Research | Bader M.K.-F.,Scion Research
New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science | Year: 2014

Background: Phosphorous acid is being investigated as a fungicide for the management of a needle disease caused by Phytophthora pluvialis in Pinus radiata in New Zealand. However, little is known about the penetration characteristics of this fungicide into Pinus radiata foliage. This study was undertaken to determine: i) the penetration characteristics of a commercial phosphorous acid formulation, applied at 3 kg ha-1and 12 kg ha-1in 100 L water, into Pinus radiata foliage and, ii) the effect of four commercially available adjuvants on phosphorous acid uptake into Pinus radiata foliage. Efficacy of the best treatment was tested in vitro with two Phytophthora species, Phytophthora kernoviae and P. pluvialis.Methods: Foliar uptake of orthophosphoric acid radio-labelled with [32P] was used to determine penetration characteristics of phosphorous acid as affected by the adjuvants tested. Needles collected from potted Pinus radiata plants sprayed with the best performing treatment were used in a detached needle assay, where treated needles were exposed to the zoospores of the Phytophthora species being tested.Results: Uptake of the phosphorous acid formulation into Pinus radiata needles applied without adjuvants was low (3.9-6.6%) at both concentrations tested. An alcohol ethoxylate adjuvant (applied at 0.2%) and two organosilicone adjuvants (applied at 0.2%) were found to significantly increase uptake of the fungicide over that applied alone or in combination with pinolene (applied at 0.35%). Highest uptake of phosphorous acid into Pinus radiata foliage (51.6%) occurred over a period of 72 hours when the phosphorous acid was applied at the equivalent of 12 kg ha-1with an organosilicone blend adjuvant at 0.2%. A significant reduction in lesion length on infected needles was found relative to the control when the two phosphorous acid treatments were applied with 0.2% organosilicone blend adjuvant. However, there were no significant differences in lesion length between the two treatments.Conclusions: These results show that an organosilicone adjuvant significantly enhances uptake of phosphorous acid into Pinus radiata needles and may increase its efficacy against Phytophthora species. © 2014, Rolando et al.

Gaskin R.E.,Plant Protection Chemistry NZ | Horgan D.B.,Plant Protection Chemistry NZ | Steele K.D.,Plant Protection Chemistry NZ | Van Leeuwen R.M.,Plant Protection Chemistry NZ
New Zealand Plant Protection | Year: 2013

Copper sprays are known to have protectant activity against the bacterial disease Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), but their longevity on kiwifruit vines was unknown. Commercial copper sprays were applied using a moving head tracksprayer to the fruit, foliage and canes of Hayward kiwifruit after which simulated rain was applied in incremental amounts up to 100 mm. The copper sprays were moderately resistant to rain wash-off on leaves with at least 25 mm of rain required to remove 50% of the initial residues. Copper sprays applied to both kiwifruit canes and fruit were highly resistant to rain washoff with up to 100% of the initial spray deposits still present after 50 mm of rain. Up to four sequential copper sprays on fruit are unlikely to exceed maximum residue limits for fruit even in the absence of rain. © 2013 New Zealand Plant Protection Society.

Gaskin R.E.,Plant Protection Chemistry NZ | Steele K.D.,Plant Protection Chemistry NZ | Elliott G.S.,Etec Crop Solutions Ltd
New Zealand Plant Protection | Year: 2011

The avocado industry has comprehensive guidelines for ground-based spray application to avocado orchards, but there are no current guidelines for aerial spray applications. Helicopter-applied deposits from a dilute spray application (600 litres/ha) of copper on a commercial Hass avocado orchard (12 m tall trees) were compared with twotimes (300 litres/ha) and three-times (200 litres/ha) concentrate sprays with addition of varying rates of the superspreader adjuvant, Du-Wett®. Tartrazine dye was included as a deposit tracer. Concentrate sprays, with adjuvant addition, consistently gave higher spray deposits on difficult-to-wet fruit than the dilute aerial spray. Deposits on fruit in all canopy zones were increased with concentrate sprays, but particularly in the upper, lower and outer canopy zones. On foliage, concentrate sprays with adjuvant addition gave similar spray deposits to the dilute spray. Leaves in mid and inner canopy zones tended to be less well targeted by concentrate sprays. This must be considered if targeting dense trees with aerial sprays.

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