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Hosny A.K.H.,Ministry of Agriculture | Agamy E.A.,Cairo University | Taha G.Z.,Plant Prot Research Institute | El-Husseini M.M.,Cairo University
Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control | Year: 2010

Laboratory and field trails were carried out against some acridid pests (desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria and some species of the grasshoppers, Acridella nasuta, Acrotylus insubricus, Chrotogonus homalodemus, Euprepocnemis plorans, Hetracris annlosa, Catantops axillaris and Aiolopus strepens) at Wadi Diib in the south of Egypt and Baharia Oasis to evaluate the performance of spinosad (Tracer 24SC) and its efficacy on the target pests in comparison to the conventional pesticides, chloropyrifos (Pestban 48%EC) and malathion (Malatox 57% EC) under laboratory and the field conditions. The laboratory results indicated that spinosad was effective against 2nd and 4th nymphal instars of S. gregaria where LC50s were 23.82 and 30.48 ppm, respectively. In the field, spinosad at the concentration of 65ml/100L caused 75% mortality among S. gregaria nymphs after 24hr and reached 100% after 48hr. Meanwhile, Pestban caused 85 and 100% mortality after 24 and 42hr, respectively. Also, when spinosad was applied against common grasshoppers at Baharia oasis at 50ml/100L concentration, it caused 83.3 and 100% mortality after 24 and 48hr, respectively, while Pestban caused similar effects (85 and 100%) after the same periods. Spinosad is a successful bio-insecticide for locust and grasshopper control.

Reda F.M.,Zagazig University | Nada M.A.,Plant Prot Research Institute | Abd-El Azeem E.M.,Plant Prot Research Institute
Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control | Year: 2013

A study of biological activity of spores and secreted different compounds in supernatants of some isolates on certain aspects of the cotton pink bollworm (PBW), Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) was carried out. Isolates of actinomycetes were; Streptomyces chibaensis, S. vinaceusdrappus, S. albidofuscus, S. nigrificans and S. canarius. As well, bacterial isolates were; Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All isolates were isolated from the soil and dead or moribund PBW. The effects of these isolates on larval, pupal mortality, adult emergence and adults' deformation were studied. Results revealed a significant larval mortality (50%) by using filtrate of S. vinaceusdrappus isolate, followed by S. chibaensis (43.7%) and the bacterial filtrate of B. subtilis (41.35%), as compared with the control (13%). The culture filtrates of both S. vinaceusdrappus and B. subtilis were screened against PBW larvae, separately or mixed (1:1 v/v) in vivo. Results cleared that mixed filtrates, included protease and lipase produced from S. vinaceusdrappus isolate, had significant effects on larval mortality (80.1%). The bacterial filtrate of B. subtilis caused (61%), compared with the control (13%). The mortality effects of these isolates were evaluated against 1st instar larvae of PBW and their latent effects on pupae and adults. Identification of S. vinaceusdrappus was confirmed using 16S rDNA gene sequence.

Abul Fadl H.A.A.,Plant Prot Research Institute | Ibrahim A.M.A.,Cairo University | Afify A.I.,Cairo University | Ahmed M.M.,Plant Prot Research Institute
Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control | Year: 2010

Survey and population density of the olive bark borer, Phloeotribus scarabaeoides (Bern.) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), and its associated parasitoids were carried out at Fayoum Governorate, Egypt during the two successive years 2008 and 2009. Six species of hymenopterous parasitoids were recorded i.e. Cheiropachus quadrum L. Eurytoma morio Bohemen., Raphitelus maculates Walker. Cerocephala cornigera Westw., Cephalonomia sp. and Dendrosoter protuberans Ness. D. protuberans was recorded for the first time on P. scarabaeoidesn in Egypt. P. scarabaeoides had two peaks in 2008 and 2009, while the parasitoids had one peak in 2008 and 2 peaks in 2009. C. quadrum was the dominant parasitoid in both seasons, with a relative density of 75.8 and 39.7, respectively. In 2008, percentage of parasitism ranged between 0.2 and 52.9%, while in 2009 it ranged between 0.07 and 29.9%. Highest percentages of parasitism (52.9% and 29.9%) were recorded in January 2008 and February 2009, respectively.

Alfazairy A.A.,Alexandria University | Alfy H.,Plant Prot Research Institute | Zarif G.,Plant Prot Research Institute | Karam H.H.,Alexandria University
Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control | Year: 2014

This is the first report of Lepidium sativum L seed powder as an adjuvant for protecting Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrovirus (SlNPV) and Bacillus thuringiensis mexicanesis (Btm) from sunlight inactivation. Efficacy of the fine powder of L. sativum seeds, as a solar protectant was assessed for seven days in direct natural sunlight bioassays. Based on the S. littoralis-larval mortalities and the percent original larvicidal activity remaining (%OAR), L. sativum seeds (at 2.5%) as an adjuvant, provided significant protection to SlNPV, Btm, or their combination (SlNPV + Btm) after one day of a direct exposure to natural sunlight. In treatments with the adjuvant at the test concentration 2.5%, a residual of about 11-22% of the original viral or bacterial activity remained after 7 days of continuous direct exposure to sunlight, compared to a complete loss of their larvicidal activity (0%) in corresponding treatments without adjuvant. Both scanning and transmission electron micrographs showed the hydrocolloidal–encapsulation of the test SlNPV or Btm, where the polyhedra of the former or the crystals of the latter were embedded within microgranules. Additionally, other desirable properties of the subject adjuvant, L. sativum seeds were recorded. It functions as a potential larval phagostimulant, where the feeding activity of S. littoralis larvae was noticeably increased and the developed pupae were 1.2 times or about 17% heavier than those of the controls. Also, adding the adjuvant, L. sativum seed powder, at a rate of 2.5% to suspension of SlNPV or Btm, lowered the LC50 value from 3.6×107 to 1.4 ×105 polyhedra/ml (ca., 260-fold lower) or from 3.9×107 to 3.08×105 CFU/ml (ca., 130-fold lower), respectively. Moreover, this adjuvant functions as an antimicrobial agent for undesirable contaminants of the unpurified virus suspensions (e.g., Micrococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Proteus sp., and Escherichia coli). L. sativum seeds, at the concentration 2.5%, showed comparable antimicrobial activity to the standard antibiotics, Anaflex (antibacterial and antifungal) and Baneocin (antibacterial), at the concentration 1%. The cost of L. sativum – based adjuvant, which could be mixed at 2.5% with the SlNPV or Btm suspensions, ranged from 1 to 2 L.E. (US $ 0.14–0.29) per liter. The present findings would nominate such an inexpensive, multifunctional adjuvant of plant origin to enhance the efficacy of SlNPV, Btm, or SlNPV + Btm for S. littoralis management; hence, further field trials are needed. © 2014, Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control. All rights reserved.

Moussa S.,Plant Prot Research Institute | Abouelmaaty H.G.,Plant Prot Research Institute | Hamada H.A.,Cairo University | Hemieda E.A.,Cairo University
Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control | Year: 2014

Bacillus thuringeinsis (Bt) Cry1Ca strain and Metarhizium anisopliae fungus were evaluated as a biocontrol agents on growth, oviposition, adult mortality and sex ratio of the Potato Tuber Moth (PTM), Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Life cycle span and developmental stages of PTM were investigated under the laboratory conditions of 26±2°C, 60-70% R.H. with 14L: 10D for three subsequent generations. Biological parameters showed a significant influence of both pathogens on the development of PTM when its newly hatched neonates were exposed to potato slices treated with partially purified Bt Cry1Ca toxin and M. anisopliae fungus crud separately as compared to non-exposed individuals. The data showed that the pre-oviposition, oviposition and post-oviposition periods significantly varied. Also, larval and pupal durations; pupal malformation and sex ratio were affected. Data clearly exhibited that both Bt Cry1Ca toxin and M. anisopliae fungus could be used as a potential larvaecidal agents to reduce the population of PTM. ©, 2014 Egyptian Society for Biological Control of Pests, All right reserved.

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