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Leisova-Svobodova L.,Czech Republic Crop Research Institute | Minarikova V.,Agrotest fyto ltd. | Matusinsky P.,Agrotest fyto ltd. | Hudcovicova M.,Plant Production Research Center Piesany | And 2 more authors.
Fungal Biology | Year: 2014

The population structure of the fungal pathogen Pyrenophora teres, collected mainly from different regions of the Czech and Slovak Republics, was examined using a microsatellite analyses (SSR). Among 305 P. teres f. teres (PTT) and 82 P. teres f. maculata (PTM) isolates that were collected, the overall gene diversity was similar (ĥ=0.12 and ĥ=0.13, respectively). A high level of genetic differentiation (FST=0.46; P<0.001) indicated the existence of population structure. Nine clusters that were found using a Bayesian approach represent the genetic structure of the studied P. teres populations. Two clusters consisted of PTM populations; PTT populations formed another seven clusters. An exact test of population differentiation confirmed the results that were generated by Structure. There was no difference between naturally infected populations over time, and genetic distance did not correlate with geographical distance. The facts that all individuals had unique multilocus genotypes and that the hypothesis of random mating could not be rejected in several populations or subpopulations serve as evidence that a mixed mating system plays a role in the P. teres life cycle. Despite the fact that the genetic differentiation value between PTT and PTM (FST=0.30; P<0.001) is lower than it is between the populations within each form (FST=0.40 (PTT); FST=0.35 (PTM); P<0.001) and that individuals with mixed PTT and PTM genomes were found, the two forms of P. teres form genetically separate populations. Therefore, it can be assumed that these populations have most likely undergone speciation. © 2013 The British Mycological Society.

Hudcovicova M.,Plant Production Research Center Piesany | Ondreickova K.,Plant Production Research Center Piesany | Hauptvogel P.,Plant Production Research Center Piesany | Kraic J.,Plant Production Research Center Piesany | Kraic J.,University of Trnava
Agriculture | Year: 2013

A set of 33 wheat EST-SSR markers was designed and 18 from them were polymorphic and used for assessment of genetic diversity within 36 introduced genotypes of hexaploid bread wheat. Altogether 105 alleles were detected, in average 3.18 alleles per locus. Maximum number of alleles 14 was detected at the locus TDI389708. Five the most polymorphic markers were used for the evaluation and comparison of genetic variation within 46 domestic (Slovak) wheat genotypes and 36 introduced (foreign) wheat genotypes. The number of alleles per used primer pair within domestic genotypes varied from 7 to 19, with an average of 13.2 alleles, an average gene diversity 0.846 and PIC 0.980 per locus. The number of alleles per primer within introduced genotypes varied from 7 to 14, with an average of 10.8 alleles, an average gene diversity 0.780 and PIC 0.958 per locus. The level of polymorphism in EST-SSRs was sufficient for discrimination between genotypes and variation within domestic genotypes was slightly higher than in introduced genotypes. Variation revealed by 5 selected EST-SSR markers clustered genotypes according to origin. Domestic and introduced wheats were grouped distinctly into two separate groups.

Alikova S.,Plant Production Research Center Piesany | Havrlentova M.,Plant Production Research Center Piesany | Hauptvogel P.,Plant Production Research Center Piesany | Mendel A.,Plant Production Research Center Piesany | And 2 more authors.
Acta Agronomica Hungarica | Year: 2012

Winter wheat landraces and modern Slovak cultivars were inoculated with the pathogen Fusarium culmorum Sacc. by spraying in May 2008, in plot experiments under natural conditions in Pieany, Slovakia. The objective was to examine the responses of the tested genotypes to inoculation with F. culmorum and to determine changes in the β-D-glucan content in the kernels. The area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC), Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK) and the β-D-glucan and deoxynivalenol (DON) contents in the grains were determined using Megazyme and Ridascreen® Fast DON assay kits. Wheat landraces had lower AUDPC and FDK, and accumulated 67.4% less DON than modern cultivars. There were highly significant correlations (P < 0.01) between AUDPC and DON content, between FDK and DON, and between AUDPC and FDK. The correlation between β-D-glucan content and AUDPC was also significant (P < 0.05), but not correlations between β-D-glucan and other traits. The β-D-glucan content in the grain of wheat genotypes artificially inoculated with F. culmorum was lower than in grains without infection. The wheat landraces contained more β-D-glucan than modern cultivars and showed higher resistance to F. culmorum. The three wheat landraces had significantly lower spike and kernel infection compared to modern cultivars and could be used to breed elite cultivars with enhanced Fusarium head blight resistance.

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