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Piešťany, Slovakia

Tanacs L.,University of Szeged | Gregova E.,Plant Production Research Center | Bodnar K.,University of Szeged | Lantos F.,University of Szeged | Monostori T.,University of Szeged
Cereal Research Communications

Experiments were carried out with wheat varieties GK Garaboly, GK Kalász, GK Verecke, GK Petur sown at the Öthalom experimental station of the Cereal Research Non-Profit Ltd. in monoculture, in a four-parallel random block design. NPK fertilizer treatments of different level were combined with Artea + Amistar Xtra fungicide treatments of increasing doses and spectrum.The fertilizer and fertilizer + fungicide treatments had a statistically reliable effect at the 0.1% level on the technological water absorption only while it was indifferent on the values such as wet gluten content, gluten spreading, baking value and falling number. On annual level reliable treatment × variety interactions could be detected for each characteristic compared to control.Increasing fertilizer doses tendentiously improved the values of wet gluten, baking value and technological water absorbance. In the case of certain treatment combinations, however, these values exhibited a tendentious decrease as the counter-effect of fungicides applied at the heading stage of development. Our results revealed that the baking quality of grains was determined by the common effect of various doses of fertilizers and fungicides Artea and Amistar Xtra applied at heading. This counter-effect proved to be unfavourable in the case of certain baking characteristics.Six different alleles or allelic pairs were revealed in the sample of genotypes - 1, 2* (locus Glu-A1), 6 + 8, 7 + 8 and 7 + 9 (locus Glu-B1) and 5 + 10 (Glu-D1). Quality scores for the wheat cultivar varied from 8 to 10. Cultivar GK Kalász had the highest quality score 10. Source

Al-Busaidi K.T.S.,University of Kassel | Al-Busaidi K.T.S.,Plant Production Research Center | Buerkert A.,University of Kassel | Joergensen R.G.,University of Kassel
Journal of Arid Environments

A 56-d incubation experiment at 30°C was carried out to study how salinity affects C and N mineralization of composted dairy manure and date palm straw. A low- and a high-saline soil were amended with (1) manure, (2) manure+low straw, (3) manure+straw, and (4) sole straw. The microbial and fungal biomass contents are very low in Omani soil abandoned for at least 6 years. Straw application revealed a highly significant increase in microbial biomass C, but especially in ergosterol in the low-saline soil. In contrast, straw led only to an increase in ergosterol in the high-saline soil, where only the combined application of manure with straw had significant positive effects on microbial biomass C. In the high-saline soil, the sum of C mineralized reached only 55% of SOC-derived CO2-C, 65% of manure-derived CO2-C, and 75% of straw-derived CO2-C in comparison with the respective treatments of the low-saline soil. The application of straw led always to a net N immobilization, which was markedly stronger in the high- than in the low-saline soil. The increase in salinity by composted cattle manure should be considered if this fertilizer is applied to soils sensitive to changes in salinity. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Bhandari H.S.,Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation | Al Lawati A.H.,Plant Production Research Center | Ray I.M.,New Mexico State University
Crop Science

Understanding the genetic structure of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plant introductions, including the identification of divergent populations, may benefit their utilization in cultivar development programs. Two independent experiments (Exp. 1 and Exp. 2) were conducted to assess amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker diversity among 18 high-yielding alfalfa core collection accessions that were previously evaluated by diallel analysis for forage yield combining abilities and heterosis in southern New Mexico. Each experiment involved nine different M. sativa subsp. sativa populations and one control accession of M. sativa subsp. Falcate (L.) Arcang. Both experiments indicated that the M. sativa subsp. sativa populations were genetically distinct from the M. sativa subsp. falcata accession. Genetic distances among the M. sativa subsp. sativa accessions were predominantly governed by the geographic distances of their historic origins in Exp. 1. In Exp. 2 such relationships were less obvious, perhaps because multiple accessions possessed South American and/or central Asian lineage. Genetic distances in both experiments were also influenced by the intersubspecific or intrasubspecific hybrid nature of some accessions. Multiple correspondence analysis of the AFLP data for the 18 accessions, in conjunction with yield performance and heterosis response of their diallel hybrids, indicated that most hybrids that exhibited positive heterosis and high yield possessed a genetically divergent accession as a parent. © Crop Science Society of America. Source

Klempova T.,Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava | Mihalik D.,Plant Production Research Center | Certik M.,Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava
General Physiology and Biophysics

Membrane-bound desaturases play key role in metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Characterization of these enzymes and their genes is the first step in basic understanding of their proper functioning in living cells as well as in tailor-made preparation of highly-specific and highlyproductive strains of microorganisms interesting for applied biotechnology. It is also the crucial step in creation of transgenic agricultural crops with enhanced content of individual polyunsaturated fatty acids. Properties and applications of identified membrane-bound desaturases genes and enzymes are discussed in this review. Source

Tatarkova Z.,Comenius University | Malovcova L.,Plant Production Research Center | Bedrna Z.,Comenius University | Masarovicova E.,Comenius University
Folia Oecologica

There was conducted an experiment to determine the impact of nitrogen and phosphorus content in soil on yield and seed production of selected rapeseed varieties. Field survey was executed on plots of the Plant Production Research Centre - Plant Production Research Institute in Borovce near Piešťany. Soil samples were taken in spring, before the growing season. In homogenized soil samples were determined contents of phosphorus and inorganic-, nitrate- and ammonium nitrogen. The experiment plot was evaluated in terms of basic nutrients content. For examined rapeseed varieties, yield and seed production were determined. The highest sensitive response to the applied fertilization and N, P soil content in spring and consequently the highest yield and seed production has observed in the varieties Labrador (yield 4.68 t ha -1, seed production 2.46 dkg plant -1), Decade (yield 4.45 t ha -1, seed production 2.66 dkg plant -1), Verona (yield 4.10 t ha -1, seed production 2.28 dkg plant -1) and Champlain (yield 4.08 t ha -1, seed production 2.46 dkg plan -1). The most unfavourable results of yield and seed production were reached by the varieties Viking (yield 2.99 t ha -1, seed production 1.36 dkg plant -1) and Baldur (yield 2.88 t ha -1, seed production 1.43 dkg plant -1). Source

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