Plant Production Research Center

Piešťany, Slovakia

Plant Production Research Center

Piešťany, Slovakia
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Bonchev G.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | Dusinsky R.,Comenius University | Hauptvogel P.,Plant Production Research Center | Svec M.,Comenius University
Journal of Molecular Evolution | Year: 2017

The patterns of genetic diversity related to the taxonomy and domestication history of 85 accessions representing the main four species of the genus Hordeum were examined by retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism (REMAP) markers based on the retrotransposon BARE-1. A substantial level of genetic polymorphisms at among- and within-species level was observed showing that this retrotransposon family and its adjacent genomic regions has been a target for genome dynamics during the evolution and domestication of barley. The obtained data are consistent with the current taxonomic status within the genus Hordeum. Similar level of genetic diversity was observed between the wild and the domesticated barley accessions suggesting that transposable elements` activity and accumulation may counteract the decrease of genome-wide diversity following domestication. In addition, eco-geographical sub-genome pools of the cultivated barley were identified in support to the theory of multiple origins of domestication within the genus Hordeum. We also provide conclusions about the relationship between accessions of different species and the putative routes of barley domestication. In conclusion, the retrotransposon BARE-1 stands as a reliable and perspective DNA marker for the assessment of the phylogenetic and domestication history in the genus Hordeum and other crop species. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Bhandari H.S.,Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation | Al Lawati A.H.,Plant Production Research Center | Ray I.M.,New Mexico State University
Crop Science | Year: 2011

Understanding the genetic structure of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plant introductions, including the identification of divergent populations, may benefit their utilization in cultivar development programs. Two independent experiments (Exp. 1 and Exp. 2) were conducted to assess amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker diversity among 18 high-yielding alfalfa core collection accessions that were previously evaluated by diallel analysis for forage yield combining abilities and heterosis in southern New Mexico. Each experiment involved nine different M. sativa subsp. sativa populations and one control accession of M. sativa subsp. Falcate (L.) Arcang. Both experiments indicated that the M. sativa subsp. sativa populations were genetically distinct from the M. sativa subsp. falcata accession. Genetic distances among the M. sativa subsp. sativa accessions were predominantly governed by the geographic distances of their historic origins in Exp. 1. In Exp. 2 such relationships were less obvious, perhaps because multiple accessions possessed South American and/or central Asian lineage. Genetic distances in both experiments were also influenced by the intersubspecific or intrasubspecific hybrid nature of some accessions. Multiple correspondence analysis of the AFLP data for the 18 accessions, in conjunction with yield performance and heterosis response of their diallel hybrids, indicated that most hybrids that exhibited positive heterosis and high yield possessed a genetically divergent accession as a parent. © Crop Science Society of America.

Havrlentova M.,Plant Production Research Center | Hlinkova A.,Plant Production Research Center | Hlinkova A.,University of Trnava | Zofajova A.,Plant Production Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Agriculture | Year: 2013

β-D-glucan is a soluble component of dietary fibre localised in the cell walls of cereal grains, especially oat and barley. This homopolysaccharide presents a wide spectrum of health-beneficial effects in human beings, and its higher concentration in oats makes it an essential component for human nutrition. Genetic and environmental factors influence the content of β-D-glucan. Four oat varieties (two naked and two hulled) were grown in experimental fields at VígÄaš-Pstruša (Central Slovakia) in two consecutive years (2007 and 2008). The experiment included five fertilisation treatments with application of nitrogen (N) (as ammonium nitrate with dolomite) before sowing, and with selenium (Se) at the end of the tilling period (in the form of sodium selenate). A higher average content of β-D-glucan and test weight were observed in naked oats, Avenuda and Detvan, compared with hulled Vendelin and Zvolen. By contrast, higher yield and thousand grains weight were detected in hulled oats. Fertilisation with N + Se increased the content of β-D-glucan, but significantly only in hulled oat grains. The warmer and drier climate in the year 2007 did not influence the content of β-D-glucan in oats, but caused a significant increase in thousand grains weight and test weight in both oat varieties, as well as grain yield in naked oats.

Ivanisova E.,Slovak University of Agriculture | Ondrejovic M.,University of Trnava | Chmelova D.,Slovak University of Agriculture | Maliar T.,University of Trnava | And 2 more authors.
Cereal Research Communications | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of four milling fractions of purple wheat breeding lines grown in 2010. Radical scavenging activity by the DPPH assay and reducing power of the samples were determined, as well as the content of polyphenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins. The obtained results showed that flour fractions (break and reduction flour) had lower total antioxidant potential than bran fractions (fine and coarse bran). A significant correlation was obtained between the DPPH and reducing power assay (R2 = 0.87). The correlation between antioxidant assays and polyphenol, flavonoid and anthocyanin content suggested that polyphenols in cereals are responsible for the antioxidant activities. © 2014 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.

Al-Busaidi K.T.S.,University of Kassel | Al-Busaidi K.T.S.,Plant Production Research Center | Buerkert A.,University of Kassel | Joergensen R.G.,University of Kassel
Journal of Arid Environments | Year: 2014

A 56-d incubation experiment at 30°C was carried out to study how salinity affects C and N mineralization of composted dairy manure and date palm straw. A low- and a high-saline soil were amended with (1) manure, (2) manure+low straw, (3) manure+straw, and (4) sole straw. The microbial and fungal biomass contents are very low in Omani soil abandoned for at least 6 years. Straw application revealed a highly significant increase in microbial biomass C, but especially in ergosterol in the low-saline soil. In contrast, straw led only to an increase in ergosterol in the high-saline soil, where only the combined application of manure with straw had significant positive effects on microbial biomass C. In the high-saline soil, the sum of C mineralized reached only 55% of SOC-derived CO2-C, 65% of manure-derived CO2-C, and 75% of straw-derived CO2-C in comparison with the respective treatments of the low-saline soil. The application of straw led always to a net N immobilization, which was markedly stronger in the high- than in the low-saline soil. The increase in salinity by composted cattle manure should be considered if this fertilizer is applied to soils sensitive to changes in salinity. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Sramkova Z.,Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava | Gregova E.,Plant Production Research Center | Slikova S.,Plant Production Research Center | Sturdik E.,Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava
Cereal Research Communications | Year: 2010

The main goal of our work was to determine the composition of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) in 84 cultivars of common wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) originating from eight European countries and registered in Slovakia. Eleven alleles and 18 allelic compositions were detected. The most frequent HMW-GS patterns were "Null", 7 + 9, 5 + 10 and "Null", 7 + 8, 5 + 10 which were observed in twenty-seven (31%) and fourteen (16.1%) cultivars, respectively. The allele 5 + 10, which has the strongest association with good bread-making quality, was present in 75% of analysed accessions. The wheat-rye 1BL/1RS translocation was identified in eleven cultivars.

Klempova T.,Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava | Mihalik D.,Plant Production Research Center | Certik M.,Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava
General Physiology and Biophysics | Year: 2013

Membrane-bound desaturases play key role in metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Characterization of these enzymes and their genes is the first step in basic understanding of their proper functioning in living cells as well as in tailor-made preparation of highly-specific and highlyproductive strains of microorganisms interesting for applied biotechnology. It is also the crucial step in creation of transgenic agricultural crops with enhanced content of individual polyunsaturated fatty acids. Properties and applications of identified membrane-bound desaturases genes and enzymes are discussed in this review.

Certik M.,Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava | Klempova T.,Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava | Guothova L.,Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava | Mihalik D.,Plant Production Research Center | Kraic J.,Plant Production Research Center
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Cereals as the major food supply are deficient in essential nutrients, such as PUFA and pigments. Biotechnological techniques based on solid state fermentation (SSF) and genetic engineering have been developed to naturally prepare functional cereals enriched with PUFAs and carotenoids. SSF represents a promising approach where the selected fungi (Zygomycetes) effectively utilize and transform raw cereal substrates to cereal-based bioproducts containing high amounts of valuable PUFAs and carotenoids. Depending on the strain, types of cereal substrates, and cultivation conditions, a range of cereal-based bioproducts enriched with PUFAs (up to 2.4% GLA, 4.2% AA, 2.1% dihomo-gamma/linolenic acid, 2.3% eicosapentaenoic acid) and pigments (8.5mg beta-carotene/kg prefermented cereals) have been prepared. In addition, cereals (barley, wheat) consisting of gamma-linolenic and stearidonic acids have been prepared by genetic transformation of the fungal fatty acid Δ6-desaturase gene. Such functional prefermented cereal-based bioproducts are characterized by the acceptable nutritive, functional, and flavor values, the improved antioxidant, radical-scavenging, and thermal oxidation properties as well as the enhanced safety; therefore they may find applications in the food/feed fields. Practical applications: Cereals lack a number of nutrients, such as PUFAs and pigments which are essential for human well-being due to their healthy, dietary, and functional properties. However, cereals could be considered as challenging sources of these compounds if they are naturally modified with the aim to contain PUFAs and pigments. Therefore the biotechnological preparation of cereals enriched with PUFAs and carotene pigments by fungal SSF has been developed. This natural technique is promising for the application of prefermented "bioproducts" in various fields and such cereal materials enriched with PUFAs and carotenoids might be considered as new types of inexpensive functional cereal-based food and feed supplements. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Tanacs L.,University of Szeged | Gregova E.,Plant Production Research Center | Bodnar K.,University of Szeged | Lantos F.,University of Szeged | Monostori T.,University of Szeged
Cereal Research Communications | Year: 2010

Experiments were carried out with wheat varieties GK Garaboly, GK Kalász, GK Verecke, GK Petur sown at the Öthalom experimental station of the Cereal Research Non-Profit Ltd. in monoculture, in a four-parallel random block design. NPK fertilizer treatments of different level were combined with Artea + Amistar Xtra fungicide treatments of increasing doses and spectrum.The fertilizer and fertilizer + fungicide treatments had a statistically reliable effect at the 0.1% level on the technological water absorption only while it was indifferent on the values such as wet gluten content, gluten spreading, baking value and falling number. On annual level reliable treatment × variety interactions could be detected for each characteristic compared to control.Increasing fertilizer doses tendentiously improved the values of wet gluten, baking value and technological water absorbance. In the case of certain treatment combinations, however, these values exhibited a tendentious decrease as the counter-effect of fungicides applied at the heading stage of development. Our results revealed that the baking quality of grains was determined by the common effect of various doses of fertilizers and fungicides Artea and Amistar Xtra applied at heading. This counter-effect proved to be unfavourable in the case of certain baking characteristics.Six different alleles or allelic pairs were revealed in the sample of genotypes - 1, 2* (locus Glu-A1), 6 + 8, 7 + 8 and 7 + 9 (locus Glu-B1) and 5 + 10 (Glu-D1). Quality scores for the wheat cultivar varied from 8 to 10. Cultivar GK Kalász had the highest quality score 10.

Bystricka J.,Slovak University of Agriculture | Vollmannova A.,Slovak University of Agriculture | Kupecsek A.,Slovak University of Agriculture | Musilova J.,Slovak University of Agriculture | And 3 more authors.
Cereal Research Communications | Year: 2011

In this study the content of total polyphenolics, rutin, and antioxidant activity in different anatomical parts of common buckwheat plants (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) of six cultivars (Spacinska, Emka, Kasho, Jana C1 and Hrusowska) was analyzed. Antioxidant activity in plant material was determined by free radical DPPH. Highest antioxidant activity was assessed in leaves, whereas stems had the lowest antioxidant activity. Total polyphenol content was assessed spectrophotometrically by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The highest concentrations were detected in leaves, with values ranging from 68.74 to 90.27 g gallic acid equivalents kg -1, while the lowest concentrations were measured in stems (2.88-3.12 -1). Significant differences between the anatomical parts were confirmed also for rutin content with the exception of cultivars Kasho and Jana C1, where the rutin content in stem and seeds was not statistically different. The highest concentration of rutin (37.90 -1) was determined in leaves of cultivar Pyra. © 2011 American Physical Society.

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