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Khaghaninia S.,University of Tabriz | Mohammadi S.A.,University of Tabriz | Sarafrazi A.M.,Institute of Plant Pests and Diseases Research | Nejad K.H.I.,University of Tabriz
Turkish Journal of Zoology | Year: 2011

In order to study population structure in the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) using RAPD markers, 13 geographical populations from northwestern Iran were collected during 2003 and 2004. Genomic DNA was extracted from 10 overwintering larvae of each population. Out of 60 tested primers, 18 amplified 236 polymorphic bands. The total number of bands in the population varied from 169 to 206 in the Mughan and Zunuz populations, respectively. Within-population genetic diversity, based on Nei's genetic index, ranged from 0.228 to 0.281 for the Shabestar and Zunuz populations, respectively. An analysis of the molecular variance revealed significant differences within and between population variance. Between-population variation accounted for 14.44% and within-population variation accounted for 85.56% of the total molecular variance. Cluster analysis based on molecular data assigned the studied codling moth populations to 2 groups. In this grouping, Group 1 consisted of the Mughan population only. The maximum and minimum genetic distances were observed between the Mughan-Ahar and Shabestar-Mahabad populations, respectively. Canonical correlation analysis showed significant association between RAPD markers and the latitude of the studied regions. A principal coordinate analysis showed high discrimination between geographic populations and confirmed the results of the cluster analysis. A significant correlation was found between genetic and geographic distance matrices as revealed by the Mantel test. © TÜBİTAKV. Source


Khaghaninia S.,University of Tabriz | Mohammadi S.,University of Tabriz | Srafrazi A.,Institute of Plant Pests and Diseases Research | Nejad K.,University of Tabriz | Zahiri R.,University of Turku
Vestnik Zoologii | Year: 2011

During years 2003-2004, nine geographical populations of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) from 4 north western provinces of Iran were collected. By preparing 575 images from fore wings and 564 from hind wings, a total of 15 and 11 landmarks were determined for fore and hind wings, respectively. With transforming of landmark's geometrical data into partial warp scores, 26 and 18 scores were obtained for fore and hind wings, respectively. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) revealed significant correlation between environmental parameters and wing shape variables. Among environmental parameters, wind speed showed the highest correlation with wing shape variables whereas, the correlation between latitude, relative humidity as well as amount of precipitation and wing shape variables was low. Considering the effect of various environmental parameters on wing shape, wind speed was determined as important parameter affecting geographic dimorphism. Among the populations collected from different regions, two geographic population pairs; Meshkinshahr-Mahneshan and Zandjan-Khoramdareh were selected as representative of low and high windy regions, respectively. Relative warp analysis (RWA) of fore and hind wings shape variables in the areas with high and low wind showed shorter and wider fore wings as well as slender and narrower hind wings in populations from high windy regions compared with populations from low wind regions. Centroid size of fore and hind wings in high windy area populations were smaller compared with those from low windy ones as revealed by t-test. The results showed aerodynamic shape and small size of wings are as adapted traits for powerful flight and its control in high windy regions. Source


Khaghaninia S.,University of Tabriz | Mohammadi S.A.,University of Tabriz | Sarafrazi A.M.,Institute of Plant Pests and Diseases Research | Iraninejad K.H.,University of Tabriz | And 2 more authors.
Bulletin of Insectology | Year: 2014

Geometric morphometric methods, minimizing redundancy and allowing more powerful statistical tests of shape differences, represent an appropriate tool for differentiation of seasonal populations or closely related taxa. To study seasonal dimorphism, samples of summer and winter populations of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera Tortricidae), were collected during 2003 and 2004 in two regions of Iran, Mianeh and Salmas. 101 and 99 forewings, and 72 and 88 hindwings were dissected from individuals of Mianeh and Salmas populations respectively. The alignment of stereoscopic images yielded a total of 15 landmarks on the forewings and 11 landmarks on the hindwings, and the geometric transformation resulted in 26 and 18 partial warp scores for the fore- and hindwings respectively. The multivariate analysis of variance based on these variables revealed significant differences among seasonal forms, geographic populations and sexes. Relative warp analysis showed a good discrimination between seasonal forms, especially when using hindwing landmarks in females. Overall shape deformations indicated that fore- and hindwings of both sexes were wider in the winter generation compared to that of summer, especially in females. It appears that a wider wing enables the winter form to fly better and thus, increase the dispersal range, particularly in overwintering females searching for suitable oviposition sites during spring. In both sexes the winter generation also had smaller forewings and larger hindwings compared with the summer form. The aerodynamic shape of the wing in the winter form enables the moths to cope better with unpredictable environmental conditions, like strong wind and heavy rain early in the season. Furthermore, adults of winter form are generally darker than the summer generation. This is a beneficially adaptive trait enabling better absorption of solar radiation during early spring. Source

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