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Wang Y.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Wang Y.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Watson G.W.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Watson G.W.,Plant Pest Diagnostic Center | And 2 more authors.
Agricultural and Forest Entomology | Year: 2010

1 In recent years, an invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) has attacked cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in Pakistan and India, causing severe economic losses. This polyphagous pest was probably introduced accidentally from North America. Infestations have broken out suddenly and spread rapidly. 2 Seasonal and annual population growth data of P. solenopsis from nine locations in its native range in the U.S.A., and the distribution of the mealybug worldwide, were analyzed using the CLIMEX model. This indicated that tropical regions worldwide were highly suitable for P. solenopsis. 3 Its potential distribution was limited by cold in high latitudes and altitudes, and dryness in northern Africa, inland Australia and parts of the Middle East. CLIMEX was used to predict where P. solenopsis might establish, and to estimate the potential threat to cotton yield in Asia. The key limiting factors were low precipitation as well as minimum temperatures in northern areas. 4 When irrigation was factored into the simulation, the potential distribution of P. solenopsis expanded dramatically, indicating that P. solenopsis presents a great economic threat to cotton in Asia and other parts of the world. © 2010 The Authors. Agricultural and Forest Entomology © 2010 The Royal Entomological Society.


Subbotin S.A.,Plant Pest Diagnostic Center | Subbotin S.A.,RAS A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution | Rogozhin E.A.,RAS Shemyakin Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry | Chizhov V.N.,RAS A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2014

The needle nematodes of the genus Longidorus can cause diseases of various crops and trees, and are comprised of more than 150 valid species. Eleven valid and six unidentified species of the genus Longidorus collected in different regions of Russia, two states of USA, Germany, New Zealand and Ukraine were molecularly characterized using analysis of the partial 18S rRNA and the D2-D3 expansion segments of the 28S rRNA gene sequences. Fifty-four partial 28S rRNA and fifteen partial 18S rRNA gene sequences were obtained for the present study. Using molecular criteria, we confirmed the morphological identification and distinguished between the following species: L. aetnaeus, L. africanus, L. andalusicus, L. artemisiae, L. caespiticola, L. distinctus, L. elongatus, L. euonymus, L. intermedius, L. leptocephalus and L. lignosus. Two longidorid populations from Russia and four from California were not identified to a species level. We obtained the full length D2-D3 of 28S rRNA gene sequence from several freshly-collected L. artemisiae samples. We confirmed the identity of the D2 region of 28S rRNA gene sequence with a short D2 of 28S rRNA gene fragment sequence previously obtained from formalin-fixed nematodes embedded in the L. artemisiae paratype slides. Longidorus lignosus was molecularly characterized and L. aetnaeus was reported from Russia for the first time. PCR-D2-D3-RFLP diagnostic profiles generated by five restriction enzymes: AluI, HinfI, Bsp143I, Tru1I and RsaI are presented for sixteen Longidorus species. © 2013 KNPV.


Van Den Berg E.,ARC Plant Protection Research Institute | Tiedt L.R.,North West University South Africa | Subbotin S.A.,Plant Pest Diagnostic Center | Subbotin S.A.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology
Nematology | Year: 2014

Pin nematodes of the genus Paratylenchus are widely distributed across the world and associated with many plant species. Morphological identification of Paratylenchus species is a difficult task because it relies on many characters with a wide range of intraspecific variation. In this study we provide morphological and molecular characterisation of several pin nematodes: Paratylenchus aquaticus, P. dianthus, P. hamatus, P. nanus and P. straeleni, collected in different states of the USA and South Africa. Paratylenchus aquaticus is reported from South Africa and Hawaii and P. nanus is found from South Africa for the first time. Morphological descriptions, morphometrics, light and scanning electron microscopic photos and drawings are given for these species. Molecular characterisation of nematodes using the D2-D3 of 28S rRNA and ITS rRNA gene sequence revealed that samples morphologically identified as P. aquaticus, P. hamatus and P. nanus indeed represent species complexes containing several species. Sequences of the rRNA genes are also provided for several unidentified Paratylenchus. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Paratylenchus are given as inferred from the analyses of the D2-D3 of 28S rRNA and ITS rRNA gene sequences. We present here the most complete phylogenetic analysis of the genus. © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2014.


Tanha Maafi Z.,Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection | Subbotin S.A.,Plant Pest Diagnostic Center | Subbotin S.A.,RAS A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution | Pourjam E.,Tarbiat Modares University | And 2 more authors.
Nematology | Year: 2013

Thirteen species of Pratylenchidae: Pratylenchus coffeae, P. delattrei, P. loosi, P. neglectus, P. penetrans, P. pseudopratensis, P. thornei, P. vulnus, Pratylenchus sp., Pratylenchoides alkani, P. ritteri, Hirschmanniella sp. and Zygotylenchus guevarai were collected from different crops and plants throughout Iran. The specimens were identified using morphological and molecular methods. Morphometrics and morphology are given for Pratylenchus sp., P. delattrei, Pratylenchoides alkani and Hirschmanniella sp. The D2-D3 expansion segments of the 28S rRNA gene were amplified and sequenced for all 13 species studied. Diagnostic PCR-ITS-RFLP profiles are given for Pratylenchus delattrei, P. penetrans, P. pseudopratensis, Pratylenchus sp., Pratylenchoides alkani and P. ritteri. Pratylenchus neglectus and P. thornei, collected from cereal fields, P. loosi from tea plantations, P. coffeae from banana, P. penetrans from ornamental plants, P. vulnus from pines and Z. guevarai from almonds showed a high level of similarity in the D2-D3 sequences with corresponding GenBank sequences. Nucleotide differences between Iranian populations and reference species were in the intraspecific range. Pratylenchus delattrei, found in vegetable fields, and Pratylenchus sp. from palm rhizosphere, formed a highly supported clade with P. zeae, the two former species being morphologically very close to the latter except in tail shape. Pratylenchus pseudopratensis, from cereal fields, clustered with P. vulnus with low support. Phylogenetic relationships within Pratylenchus species were mainly congruent with those obtained in previous studies. Despite the morphological similarities between P. ritteri and P. alkani, the D2-D3 of 28S rRNA gene sequences differed by 5 bp. Hirschmanniella sp., from a rice field, formed a clade with H. loofi and H. kwazuna. © 2013 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.


Watson G.W.,Plant Pest Diagnostic Center | Marler T.E.,University of Guam
Communicative and Integrative Biology | Year: 2014

Cycad aulacaspis scale (CAS, Aulacaspis yasumatsui, Hemiptera: Diaspididae) was accidentally introduced to Guam in 2003, and has caused acute mortality of the dominant, endemic forest tree Cycas micronesica. A phytotoxic legacy in the soils beneath cycad trees killed by CAS over a period of about three years has been demonstrated. The origin of the toxicity may be large quantities of CAS-encrusted cycad leaf litter. We explore the possibility that a major contribution to this toxic legacy may come from the scale insects, not just from the plant material. © 2014 Landes Bioscience.


Cantalapiedra-Navarrete C.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture | Liebanas G.,University of Jaén | Vovlas N.,CNR Plant Protection Institute | Subbotin S.A.,Plant Pest Diagnostic Center | And 3 more authors.
Zoologischer Anzeiger | Year: 2013

The nematode Rotylenchus paravitis n. sp. infesting roots of commercial sunflowers in southern Spain is described. The new species is characterised by a truncate lip region with 7-9 annuli and continuous with the body contour, lateral fields areolated at pharyngeal region only, body without longitudinal striations, stylet length of 44-50. μm, vulva position at 43-54%, tail rounded to hemispherical with 12-18 annuli. A comparative phenetic study based on a multivariate principal component analysis was developed to determine potential species discrimination. The degree of variation for most characters among specimens of Rotylenchus paravitis n. sp. and R. vitis was comparable to that observed among specimens belonging to each of the two studied populations of R. robustus from Spain and USA. Molecular comparison of the partial 18S, D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S-rRNA, ITS1-rRNA, partial COI and hsp90 from R. paravitis n. sp. and R. vitis, and other species in the genus, clearly supports the proposal of R. paravitis n. sp. as a new species. Consequently, R. paravitis n. sp. should be considered as an example of cryptic speciation within the genus Rotylenchus. PCR-ITS-RFLP was provided for diagnostics of R. paravitis n. sp. and PCR with specific primers were also developed for diagnostics of this new species, R. vitis and R. robustus. The results of the phylogenetic analysis based on the sequences of the D2-D3 expansion regions of the 28S, ITS1-rRNA genes, and the partial COI, have proven to be a powerful tool for providing accurate species identification and assessing phylogenetic relationships within the genus Rotylenchus. Phylogenetic testing of D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S-rRNA gene sequences did not refute the monophyly of the genera Rotylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Hoplolaimus, based on tree topologies and the Shimodaira-Hasegawa test even with the split in several clades for some of the genera. © 2012 Elsevier GmbH.


Nephepeltia flavipennis (Holotype: Brazil, Rondônia, Governador Jorge Teixeira Municipality, Fazenda Rancho Grande, 10°31′48″S, 62°48′0″W, 165 m, J. Wiseman leg., in MNRJ) is described from the Amazon region of W Brazil, Ecuador, and N Peru. A lectotype is designated for N. aequisetis Calvert, 1909. Nephepeltia chalconota is considered to be a junior subjective synonym of N. flavifrons Karsch, 1889, and the subdivision of N. phryne into two subspecies is found to be unjustifiable. Diagnoses, illustrations, a key to males, and an updated map for all known members of the genus are provided. Copyright © 2014 Magnolia Press.


Since 2004, an undescribed species of Unaspis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) has become a damaging pest on Lansium domes-ticum Corrêa in the Philippines. Its attack on the leaves causes premature senescence and defoliation, resulting in the pro-duction of few, underdeveloped, sour fruit and sometimes killing the trees. The scale was misidentified initially as Lepidosaphes ulmi (Linnaeus) and then as Unaspis citri (Comstock), but further study indicated that it was an undescribed species of potential plant quarantine significance. The pest is described as U. lansivora sp. n. and an identification key to all 19 species of Unaspis is provided. Its distribution, host range and prospects for its biological control are discussed. © 2015 Magnolia Press.


Mifsud D.,University of Malta | Mazzeo G.,University of Catania | Russo A.,University of Catania | Watson G.W.,Plant Pest Diagnostic Center
Zootaxa | Year: 2014

Past works on scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) from the Maltese Archipelago are reviewed. Based on the literature and contemporary collections, a total of 93 species of scale insects belonging to 12 scale insect families are here reported (Aclerdidae 1 species; Asterolecaniidae 4; Coccidae 17; Diaspididae 46; Eriococcidae 5; Kermesidae 1; Margarodidae 1; Micrococcidae 1; Monophlebidae 2; Pseudoccocidae 11; Putoidae 2 and Rhizoecidae 2). Of these, 17 species represent new distribution records. Ten species are excluded from the scale insect fauna of the Maltese Islands. Of the 93 species present, only 29 (31.18%) are probably indigenous and the rest (68.82%) represent established introductions from elsewhere. More than 65% of the indigenous species are typical Mediterranean in distribution, with a few species having a mainly European chorotype. A quarter of the established aliens originate from Eurasia, followed by an East Asian/ Oriental component (20.31%); European (14.06%); Neotropical (14.06%); cryptogenic (14.06%); African (7.81%) and Australasian (4.70%). Movement of live fruit trees and ornamental plants into the Maltese Archipelago from nearby countries is probably the main route for entry of alien scale insects into the country. Some possible future introductions are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Magnolia Press


Examination of over 1,400 specimens of the neotropical genus Metaleptobasis Calvert, 1907, including primary types or paratypes of 18 of the 20 currently available species names and large series of specimens including pairs in tandem and copula, allowed me to unequivocally associate older names with species, distinguish between specific and intraspecific variability, associate both sexes for each species, and recognize the existence of female polymorphism. As a result, seven names are found to be junior synonyms: Metaleptobasis mauritia Williamson, 1915 junior synonym of M. bicornis (Selys, 1877), M. manicaria Williamson, 1915 and M. fernandezi Rácenis, 1955 junior synonyms of M. diceras (Selys, 1877), M. westfalli Cumming, 1954 junior synonym of M. foreli Ris, 1915, and M. tetragena Calvert, 1947, M. weibezahni Rácenis, 1955, and M. incisula De Marmels, 1989 junior synonyms of M. brysonima Williamson, 1915. Lectotypes are designated for M. amazonica and Leptobasis diceras. Eighteen new species of Metaleptobasis are described: M. brevicauda (Holo-type δ, Peru, Huánuco Dep., Shapajilla, jungle, 11 v 1939, F. Woytkowski leg., in UMMZ); M. falcifera (Holotype δ, Peru, Madre De Dios Dep., Pakitza, Reserved Zone, Manu National Park, T2 to R2 to T1 to base camp, 11°55′48″S, 71°15′18″W, 250 m, 17 ix 1989, J.A. Louton leg., in USNM); M. furcifera (Holotype δ, Peru, Loreto Dep., Iquitos, iii 1936, G.G. Klug leg., in BMNH); M. gabrielae (Holotype δ, Peru, Loreto Dep., Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo Reserve, forest interior (4°23′40″S, 73°14′56″W), 27 vii 2009, T. Faasen leg., in RMNH); M. guillermoi (Holotype δ, Peru, Loreto Dep., Yarinacocha, temporary forest stream (8°17′S, 74°37′W, 145 m), 2 vi 1972, D.L. Pearson leg., in FSCA); M. inermis (Ho-lotype δ, Brazil, Pará State, Jacareacanga, vii 1969, F.R. Barbosa leg., in UMMZ); M. leniloba (Holotype δ, Peru, Loreto Dep., Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve, Santa Luisa trail (5°15′S, 74°40′W), 10 vi 2008, C. Beatty, A. Cordero & J. Hoff-mann leg., in FSCA); M. longicauda (Holotype δ, Brazil, Mato Grosso State, C. Teles Pires, Alto Tapajos, 1-31 viii 1956, Sick leg., in MNRJ); M. orthogonia (Holotype δ, Peru, Loreto Dep., San Juan, Río Amazonas, near Iquitos, viii 1939, J. Schunke leg., in FSCA); M. paludicola (Holotype δ, Peru, Loreto Dep., Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo Reserve, swamp, 4°23′49″S, 73°14′57″W, 27 ii 2009, T. Faasen leg., in RMNH); M. panguanae (Holotype δ, Peru, Huánuco Dep., Biolog-ical Station Panguana, E side Río Yuyapichis, 9°37′S, 74°57′W, 6-17 iv 2003, H.J. & E.-G. Burmeister leg., in ZSM); M. peltata (Holotype δ, Peru Loreto Dep., Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo Reserve, 4°21′22″S, 73°11′0″ W, 19 ii 2010, T. Faasen leg., in RMNH); M. prostrata (Holotype δ, Peru, Junín Dep., Satipo, v 1945, P. Paprzycki leg., in UMMZ); M. silvicola (Ho-lotype δ, Peru, Madre de Dios Dep., Explorer′s Inn on Río Tambopata, 30 km SW Puerto Maldonado, main trail, 1 viii 1979, M. Perkins & P. Donahue leg., in FSCA); M. spatulata (Holotype δ, Peru, Huánuco Dep., 10 km N of Cucharas, confluence of Huallaga and Pacay rivers, viii 1954, F. Woytkowski leg., in UMMZ); M. tridentigera (Holotype δ, Brazil, Rondônia State, Porto Velho, Area Abunan, T11 Aleatorio, 8°46′S, 63°54′W, 86 m, 16 v 2010, Nogueira & Mendes leg., in MZUSP); M. truncata (Holotype δ, Brazil, Pará State, Jacareacanga, xi 1969, F.R. Barbosa leg., in UMMZ); and M. turbinata (Holotype δ, Peru, Loreto Dep., Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo Reserve, forest swamp (4°24′18″S, 73°14′38″W), 25 ii 2010, T. Fassen leg., in RMNH). Illustrations, keys, diagnoses, and distribution maps for all 31 currently known species are provided. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Metaleptobasis are analyzed based on 33 adult morphological characters, including the 31 currently described species of Metaleptobasis and eleven outgroup taxa of other Coenagrion-idae of the subfamily Teinobasinae. The cladistic analysis recovered Metaleptobasis as monophyletic, and as sister group of Aceratobasis Kennedy, a teinobasine genus some of the species of which possess an articulated spur on base of male cercus. Hypothesized relationships among its species are discussed. © 2013 Magnolia Press.

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