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Faisalābād, Pakistan

Rehman A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Imran M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Mehboob S.,Plant Pathology Research Institute | Khan N.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Agriculture and Biology | Year: 2015

Collar rot induced by Macrophomina phaseolina, recently appeared as one of the most significant constraints to the production of Cockscomb (Celosia argentea L.), an ornamental plant. Symptoms include, wilting of the plant, chlorosis of lower leaves, shrinking of stem at collar region, which becomes black at later stage and affected plant become shredded, consequently a clear mycelial growth of the fungus can be seen if the stem of the affected plant is split open. In this study, the causal fungus was isolated from the diseased tissues (collar and stem regions, externally and internally). Then the pathogenicity test of isolated pathogens was confirmed through Koch's postulates. Considering the management trials, five fungicides (Carbendazim, Thiophenate-M, Ridomil Gold, Antracol and Score) and five different plant extracts (Azadirachta indicia L., Melia azedarach L., Eucalyptus cameldulensis L., Syzygium cumini L. and Moringa oleifera L.) were evaluated against the collar rot disease pathogen (Macrophomina phaseolina) by poison food technique at different concentrations viz., 100, 150, 200 and 250 μg/mL for fungicides and 10, 15 and 20% for plant extracts. Out of five fungicides used, Topsin M and Antracol were found to be most effective in reducing the mycelial growth of M. phaseolina by (83%) and (76%) followed by Ridomil Gold, Score and Carbendazim (46, 39 and 29% reduction). In case of plant extracts, A. indicia and E. cameldulensis extracts were more effective by reducing the mycelial growth of M. phaseolina by 77 and 74%, respectively, followed by M. oleifera, M. azedarach, and S. cumini (61, 45 and 18% reduction). © 2015 Friends Science Publishers.

Akhtar K.P.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB | Saleem M.Y.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB | Asghar M.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology NIAB | Ali S.,Plant Pathology Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

The reaction of 82 tomato genotypes belonging to 8 Solanum and a Lycopersicon species against Phytophthora infestans causing late blight was determined using detached-leaf and whole-plant assays. None of the test genotypes was immune or highly resistant. Of the 82 commercial and wild genotypes only TMS-2 (male-sterile and characterized by indeterminate growth) belonging to Lycopersicon esculentum was resistant with severity index of 2.4 in the detached-leaf assay on 0-5 scale (where 5 was highly susceptible) and percent disease index (%DI) of 23.3% under the whole-plant assay. Among the remaining genotypes, 41 were susceptible and 40 were highly susceptible under the detached-leaf assay, while 18 were susceptible and 63 were highly susceptible under the whole-plant assay. However, there was a significant difference in %DI for genotypes under the whole-plant assay. The response of whole-plants to inoculation with P. infestans in the detached-leaf assay was similar in all cases. The overall screening results indicate that TMS-2 is a good source of resistance and it can be useful for the development of tomato hybrid cultivars resistant to late blight.

Yusuf M.J.,Fodder Research Institute | Nabi G.,Fodder Research Institute | Basit A.,Fodder Research Institute | Husnain S.K.,Plant Pathology Research Institute | Akhtar L.H.,Agricultural Research Station
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2012

Development of superior crop cultivars is ultimate goal of plant breeders. New variety of pearl millet "Sargodha Bajra-2011" was evolved at Fodder Research Institute Sargodha. After obtaining a uniform type of plants, the new variety was evaluated. On the basis of its high green fodder yield, the new variety was tested in Station Yield Trials (SYT) during 2003, 2004 and 2005. Simultaneously: it was also evaluated in different ecological zones throughout the Punjab during the years 2005. It was evaluated in Notational Uniform Fodder Yield Trials (NUFYT) during the years 2004, 2005 and 2006. In SYT, it produced fodder yield of 35.09-66.82 t ha-1 and out yielded the check i.e. 18-BY. In zonal testing, the data reflected that this variety out yielded all the lines/varieties and the standard check variety "18-BY" producing an average green fodder yield of 60.67 t ha-1 against 52.66 t ha-1 produced by the check variety 18- BY. On the basis of weighted average of three years, Sargodha Bajra-2011 yielded 43.7-51.3 t ha-1 green fodder yields against the check variety which yielded 39.9-47.8 t ha-1. Plant height of the new variety is 260 cm; number of leaves per main tiller are 14; leaf color is green; leaf area is 334.3 cm2 and stem thickness is 1.4 cm. It has an erect growth habit. It has better palatability and digestibility. The fodder contains 5.67% crude protein, 38.98% dry matter, 27.07 crude fibre and 3.3% ether extract. Its agronomic studies were done during 2005-09. Its DUS study was conducted in 2008-2009. This variety gives best yield when planted on 15th July at 30 cm apart rows supplied with 80-60 kg NP ha-1 and irrigation applied at 14 days interval.

Azmat M.A.,Vegetable Research Institute | Nawab N.N.,Vegetable Research Institute | Niaz S.,Vegetable Research Institute | Rashid A.,Vegetable Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Vegetable Science | Year: 2010

Powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe polygoni DC causes severe reductions in the green pod yield of pea (Pisum sativum L). The objective of this study was to reveal the genetics of powdery mildew resistance in six Resistant × Susceptible crosses and their generations (F1, F2, BCs, and BCr) against three isolates of E. polygoni. Cautious selection of the parental material and evaluation of 873 individual F2 plants from six crosses gave a perfect 3 susceptible:1 resistant segregation and 1 resistant:1 susceptible in BCr. These results led to the conclusion that resistance was conferred by the single recessive gene (er). © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Akhtar K.P.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology | Sarwar N.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology | Saleem K.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology | Ali S.,Plant Pathology Research Institute
Australasian Plant Disease Notes | Year: 2013

Trianthema portulacastrum (horse purslane) is among the most noxious summer annual weeds in Pakistan. During June 2010-2012, a severe outbreak of leaf and stem blight was observed for the first time on T. portulacastrum in Pakistan. Symptoms on leaves and stems were examined as round to oval straw colored spots with maroon margins. As the disease progressed, affected leaves became chlorotic and dried up causing severe defoliation and withering of stems. The pathogen was identified as Gibbago trianthemae on the basis of morphology and cultural characteristics. A pathogenicity test was performed and Koch's postulates were fulfilled by re-isolation of the fungus G. trianthemae from diseased tissues of T. portulacastrum. This is the first report of G. trianthemae causing blight on T. portulacastrum in Pakistan. © 2013 Australasian Plant Pathology Society Inc.

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