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Prabhakar C.S.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya | Prabhakar C.S.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Sood P.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya | Sood P.,Crop Research Sub Station | And 4 more authors.
Phytoparasitica | Year: 2013

Gut bacteria of fruit fly, Bactrocera tau (Walker) (Diptera: Tephritidae), were isolated and the isolates attractive to B. tau adults were characterized using morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA analyses to determine their taxonomic position. Based upon morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA sequences (on the basis of closest match), five gut bacterial species of B. tau were characterized as Delftia acidovorans, Pseudomonas putida, Flavobacterium sp., Defluvibacter sp. and Ochrobactrum sp., of which four bacterial isolates, viz., Delftia acidovorans, Flavobacterium sp., Defluvibacter sp. and Ochrobactrum sp. are new records from guts of the fruit fly species. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Prabhakar C.S.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya | Prabhakar C.S.,Bhabha Atomic Research Center | Sood P.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya | Sood P.,Crop Research Sub Station | And 2 more authors.
Biochemical Systematics and Ecology | Year: 2013

The population genetic structure of the pumpkin fruit fly, Bactrocera tau, a fruit fly pest that causes significant losses to cucurbit cultivations, has been studied in Himachal Pradesh (India) using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) gene sequences. Levels of differentiation (genetic distances and FST values) among samples from different locations are minimal, suggesting the local occurrence of a large and geographically undifferentiated population, with the possible exception of population Solan. Nevertheless, overall genetic variability is substantial, with 10 different haplotypes detected in 16 individuals and only one of these - likely the original one as it occupies a central position in the network and is found at a relatively high frequency -shared between multiple populations. The phylogenetic analysis of local B. tau samples in the context of the different sibling species that constitute the B. tau complex in its South-East Asia region of origin revealed that local B. tau is closely related to B. tau species A from Thailand. This should be taken into account in any intervention aimed at the control of this pest, e.g. area wide integrated pest management (AW IPM). The marked local genetic uniformity and predominance of one single species of the species complex further suggest that the sterile insect technique (SIT) may be a viable option. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Gupta V.K.,University of Rajasthan | Gupta V.K.,National University of Ireland | Misra A.K.,Molecular Plant Pathology Laboratory
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2011

Wilt of Psidium guajava L., incited by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. psidii and Fusarium solani is a serious soil-borne disease of guava in India. Forty-two isolates each of F. oxysporum f. sp. psidii (Fop) and F. solani (Fs) collected from different agro climatic zones of India showing pathogenicity were subjected to estimate the genetic and molecular characterisation in terms of analysis of microsatellite marker studies. Out of eight microsatellite markers, only four microsatellite markers, viz. MB 13, MB 17, RE 102 and AY212027 were amplified with single band pattern showing the character of identical marker for molecular characterisation and genetic identification. Microsatellite marker MB 13 was amplified in F. oxysporum f. sp. psidii and F. solani isolates. Product size of 296 bps and 1018 bps were exactly amplified with a single banding pattern in all the isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. psidii and F. solani, respectively. Microsatellite markers, viz. MB 17, RE 102 and AY212027 were also exactly amplified with a single banding pattern. MB 17 was amplified in F. oxysporum f. sp. psidii isolates with a product size of 300 bp. RE 102 and AY212027 were amplified in F. solani isolates with the product size of 153 bp and 300 bp, respectively. Therefore, amplified microsatellite marker may be used as identifying DNA marker. © 2011 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Sharma P.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Sharma P.N.,Molecular Plant Pathology Laboratory | Kapil R.,Molecular Plant Pathology Laboratory | Sharma S.K.,Molecular Plant Pathology Laboratory | Sharma O.P.,Molecular Plant Pathology Laboratory
Indian Journal of Virology | Year: 2011

Four strains (NL-1, NL-1n, NL-7 and NL-7n) of Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) prevalent on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Himachal Pradesh, a north-western Himalayan state of India were compared at the 3′ terminal region of the viral genome to elucidate variation and relationship among these strains. 3′ terminal region comprising of partial nuclear inclusion b (NIb) (171-233 bp), complete coat protein (CP) (860 bp) and 30 untranslated region (UTR) (208-244 bp) shared 96-98% nucleotide and 96-99% amino acids identity among various strains of BCMV. Multiple alignment as well as cluster dendrograms of the 3′ terminal region placed the test isolates in BCMV species of genus Potyvirus. Phylogenetic analysis of complete CP as well as 3′ UTR also showed Indian strains to be distinct strains. Sequence homology, multiple alignment and evolutionary divergence of 3′ terminal region could not differentiate the pathogenic strain groups, thereby establishing least role of this region in strain characterization of the virus. Comparisons of CP and 3′ UTR region of BCMV strains and other members of genus Potyvirus clearly indicated the little utility of 3′ terminal region in distinction of virus strains. Implications of coat protein region in viral strain distinction are also discussed. © Indian Virological Society 2011.

Lee I.-M.,Molecular Plant Pathology Laboratory | Polashock J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Bottner-Parker K.D.,Molecular Plant Pathology Laboratory | Bagadia P.G.,University of Maryland University College | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2014

The identity of the presumed phytoplasmal pathogen associated with cranberry false-blossom disease has never been fully clarified. In the present study a molecular-based procedure was employed to determine the identity of the phytoplasma. Tissues of cranberry plants exhibiting cranberry false-blossom symptoms were collected from multiple bogs on each of three randomly selected commercial cranberry farms in New Jersey. Leafhoppers, including the known vector Limotettix vaccinii (Van Duzee) (=Scleroracus vaccinii, Euscellis striatulus) and the sharp-nosed leafhopper Scaphytopius magdalensis (Provancher), a known vector of blueberry stunt disease, were collected from two different farms in New Jersey. Nested PCR assays and RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences were employed for the detection and identification of the associated phytoplasmas. All of 20 cranberry plants sampled and five out of 14 batches of leafhoppers tested positive for phytoplasma. Virtual RFLP and sequence analyses revealed that all the associated phytoplasmas were members or variants of a new subgroup, 16SrIII-Y. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences indicated that cranberry false-blossom phytoplasma strains represented a lineage distinct from other 16SrIII subgroups. This is the first report confirming that a new phytoplasma (designated as a new subgroup 16SrIII-Y) is associated with cranberry false-blossom disease and associated with both leafhopper species in New Jersey. © 2014 US Government.

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