Plant Pathology Herbarium

Dutton Park, Australia

Plant Pathology Herbarium

Dutton Park, Australia
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Telle S.,Biodiversity and Climate Research Center | Shivas R.G.,Plant Pathology Herbarium | Ryley M.J.,Crop and Food Science | Thines M.,Biodiversity and Climate Research Center | Thines M.,Goethe University Frankfurt
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2011

Downy mildews are amongst the most widespread and economically important pathogens of cultivated grasses in the tropics and subtropics. Despite their importance, molecular methods, particularly DNA sequence analysis, have rarely been applied to either species identification or to the determination of phylogenetic relationships between species. Here we report the presence of several cryptic species in the genus Peronosclerospora. Further we confirm that maize can be parasitised by several species of Peronosclerospora, including P. eriochloae, which has not been reported previously as a pathogen of maize. The presence of 14 distinct phylogenetic lineages, including three that are parasitic to maize, highlights the current fragmentary knowledge on the diversity and classification of species within Peronosclerospora. Species identification in Peronosclerospora has been traditionally based on the host genus and a set of variable morphological characteristics, which has meant that the identification of species is often unreliable. This situation is primed for the application of molecular techniques for the identification of species. One of the lineages parasitic to maize in Australia has not yet been formally described and its distribution is not known. Future investigation including a broad sampling of downy mildews from maize and other cultivated and native grasses on a world-wide basis is a prerequisite to a re-evaluation of quarantine regulations aimed at restricting or limiting their spread. © 2011 KNPV.

Samuelian S.K.,Charles Sturt University | Greer L.A.,Charles Sturt University | Cowan K.,Plant Pathology Herbarium | Priest M.,Plant Pathology Herbarium | And 3 more authors.
Plant Pathology | Year: 2013

Greeneria uvicola causes bitter rot on Vitis vinifera (bunch grapes) and Muscadinia rotundifolia (muscadine grapes) in warm moist temperate and subtropical regions. This study investigated the phylogenetic relationship of G. uvicola representatives from Australia (67 isolates), the USA (31 isolates), India (1 isolate) and Costa Rica (1 isolate) and compared their pathogenicity and fungicide sensitivity. Differences in cultural and conidial morphology were observed between the isolates from Australia and the USA. Phylogenetic relationships were determined based on three gene regions: the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1-5{bullet operator}8S-ITS2), 28S large subunit (LSU) nuclear rDNA and β-tubulin-2. Greeneria uvicola isolates were clearly differentiated into four groups: isolates from Australia and India; USA isolates from V. vinifera; USA isolates from M. rotundifolia; and the isolate from Costa Rica. All isolates were pathogenic on V. vinifera (cv. Chardonnay) berries although those originating from M. rotundifolia were not as aggressive as isolates from V. vinifera, irrespective of geographical origin. Sensitivity to pyraclostrobin and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) was studied. Despite differences in fungicide applications, hyphal growth inhibition was not significantly different for geographical location, cultivar, tissue, year of collection or different spray regimes. For the Australian and USA isolates, fungal growth inhibition was significantly greater for pyraclostrobin than for SHAM, and was significantly greater for the combined treatment than for each of the fungicides applied singly. The aetiological and epidemiological knowledge of bitter rot collected through this study will aid better prediction and management strategies of this pathogen. © 2012 The Authors Plant Pathology © 2012 BSPP.

Cai L.,CAS Institute of Microbiology | Giraud T.,University Paris - Sud | Zhang N.,Rutgers University | Begerow D.,Ruhr University Bochum | And 2 more authors.
Fungal Diversity | Year: 2011

In this paper, we review historical and contemporary species concepts and species recognition criteria for plant pathogenic fungi. Previous incongruent and unstable classification based on subjective and changing criteria have led to some confusion, especially amongst plant pathologists. The goal of systematics is to provide an informative and robust framework that stands the test of time. The taxonomic histories of Cercospora, Colletotrichum, Fusarium, as well as the rust and smut fungi, are used as examples, to show how concepts and criteria used to delimit and recognize species have changed. Through these examples we compare the Genealogical Concordance Phylogenetic Species Recognition, an extension of the Phylogenetic Species Criterion, with other species recognition criteria and show that it provides a better discrimination for delimiting species. A rapidly increasing number of cryptic species are being discovered amongst plant pathogenic fungi using the Genealogical Concordance Phylogenetic Species Recognition, and it is important to determine their host range, the severity of diseases they cause and their biosecurity significance. With rapidly expanding global trade it has become imperative that we develop effective and reliable protocols to detect these previously unrecognized pathogens. © Kevin D. Hyde 2011.

Tan Y.P.,Plant Pathology Herbarium | Edwards J.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | Grice K.R.E.,Agri Science Queensland | Shivas R.G.,Plant Pathology Herbarium
Fungal Diversity | Year: 2013

Six new species of Diaporthe, D. beilharziae on Indigofera australis, D. fraxini-angustifoliae on Fraxinus angustifolia subsp. oxycarpa, D. litchicola on Litchi chinensis, D. nothofagi on Nothofagus cunninghamii, D. pascoei on Persea americana and D. salicicola on Salix purpurea from Australia are described and illustrated based on morphological characteristics and molecular analyses. Three of the new species no longer produced sporulating structures in culture and two of these were morphologically described from voucher specimens. Phylogenetic relationships of the new species with other Diaporthe species are revealed by DNA sequence analyses based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, and partial regions of the β-tubulin (BT) and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF). © 2013 Mushroom Research Foundation.

James R.S.,Northern Australia Quarantine Strategy NAQS | Ray J.,Northern Australia Quarantine Strategy NAQS | Tan Y.P.,Plant Pathology Herbarium | Shivas R.G.,Plant Pathology Herbarium
Australasian Plant Disease Notes | Year: 2014

Four species, Colletotrichum asianum, C. queenslandicum, C. siamense and C. theobromicola, were isolated and identified from several plants species in the Northern Territory, Australia. Some of these fungal associations represent first reports, namely, C. queenslandicum on Passiflora edulis; C. siamense on Artocarpus heterophyllus, Eriobotrya japonica, Ficus carica, Mentha sp., Piper nigrum, Rosmarinus officinalis and Theobroma cacao; and C. theobromicola on Coffea canephora and C. arabica. Colletotrichum asianum was isolated from mango for the first time in the NT. These collections help provide evidence for the absence of Colletotrichum spp. of biosecurity importance in the Northern Territory. © 2014, Australasian Plant Pathology Society Inc.

McTaggart A.R.,University of Queensland | Geering A.D.W.,University of Queensland | Shivas R.G.,Plant Pathology Herbarium
Australasian Plant Disease Notes | Year: 2013

The cause of blueberry rust in eastern Australia was determined by molecular and morphological analysis as Thekopsora minima. © 2013 Australasian Plant Pathology Society Inc.

Shivas R.G.,Plant Pathology Herbarium | Beasley D.R.,Plant Pathology Herbarium | McTaggart A.R.,Plant Pathology Herbarium | McTaggart A.R.,University of Queensland
IMA Fungus | Year: 2014

Interactive identification keys for Australian smut fungi (Ustilaginomycotina and Pucciniomycotina, Microbotryales) and rust fungi (Pucciniomycotina, Pucciniales) are available online at http://collections. The keys were built using Lucid software, and facilitate the identification of all known Australian smut fungi (317 species in 37 genera) and 100 rust fungi (from approximately 360 species in 37 genera). The smut and rust keys are illustrated with over 1,600 and 570 images respectively. The keys are designed to assist a wide range of end-users including mycologists, plant health diagnosticians, biosecurity scientists, plant pathologists, and university students. The keys are dynamic and will be regularly updated to include taxonomic changes and incorporate new detections, taxa, distributions and images. Researchers working with Australian smut and rust fungi are encouraged to participate in the ongoing development and improvement of these keys. © 2014 International Mycological Association.

Deng H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Tan Y.P.,University Utrecht | Shivas R.G.,Plant Pathology Herbarium | Niu Y.C.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Mycoscience | Year: 2015

Cultures originally identified as Drechslera australiensis, from seeds of Chloris gayana in Japan, were the basis for Tsuda and Ueyama's new combination, Bipolaris australiensis, and its associated sexual morph Pseudocochliobolus australiensis. By studying ex-type materials of both Drechslera australiensis, which was originally isolated from seeds of Oryza sativa in Australia, and Pseudocochliobolus australiensis, we show by morphological and molecular phylogenetic analysis that these two specimens represent different species. Taxonomic confusion is resolved by the transfer of Pseudocochliobolus australiensis to Curvularia tsudae comb. nov. et nom. nov., together with a revised synonymy for Curvularia australiensis. © 2014 The Mycological Society of Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Li Y.-M.,CAS Institute of Microbiology | Li Y.-M.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Shivas R.G.,Plant Pathology Herbarium | Cai L.,CAS Institute of Microbiology
Mycoscience | Year: 2014

Three new species of Tilletia are described from species of Eriachne (Poaceae) in the arid tropics of north-western Australia. In Western Australia, T. mactaggartii sp. nov. infects E. burkittii, and T. geeringii sp. nov. infects E. festucacea. Tilletia marjaniae sp. nov. infects E. pulchella subsp. dominii in Western Australia and the Northern Territory. These species are the first records of Tilletia on Eriachne. Phylogenetic relationships of these species were inferred from internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal RNA region and large subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences. © 2013 The Mycological Society of Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Tan Y.P.,Plant Pathology Herbarium | Tan Y.P.,University Utrecht | Madrid H.,Fungal Biodiversity Center | Crous P.W.,Fungal Biodiversity Center | Shivas R.G.,Plant Pathology Herbarium
Australasian Plant Pathology | Year: 2014

An examination of ex-type and authentic cultures of 34 species of Bipolaris and Curvularia by phylogenetic analysis of four loci (EF-1α, GAPDH, ITS and LSU) resulted in nine new combinations in Curvularia, as well as new synonymies for some species of Bipolaris and Curvularia. Lectotypes are designated for Bipolaris secalis and Curvularia richardiae, and an epitype is designated for Curvularia crustacea. A new monotypic genus, Johnalcornia, is introduced to accommodate Bipolaris aberrans, which clusters sister to the newly described Porocercospora. Johnalcornia differs morphologically from this taxon by producing distinctive conidia-like chlamydospores as well as comparatively thick-walled, geniculate conidiophores, with conidiogenous cells that have conspicuous scars. Johnalcornia further differs from related genera by forming the second conidial septum in the apical cell. © 2014, Australasian Plant Pathology Society Inc.

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