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Jia Z.,Plant Growth and Defense Signaling Laboratory | Jia Z.,Hebei Academy of Science | Zou B.,Plant Growth and Defense Signaling Laboratory | Wang X.,Plant Growth and Defense Signaling Laboratory | And 5 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2010

Quercetin is a potent antioxidant and has been extensively used as a therapy intervention to prevent age-associated diseases. However, emerging studies showed it can also act as a prooxidant and induce H2O2 under certain conditions. In the current study, our results showed that quercetin contributed to the pathogen resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) in response to the infection of virulent strain Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato DC3000 (Pst). Various defense responses, such as H2O2 burst, callose deposition, cell death, PR1 (pathogenesis-related 1) and PAL1 (Phe ammonia-lyase 1) gene expression, have been investigated in quercetin-pretreated Pst-inoculated Arabidopsis Col-0 and there was a strong defensive response in quercetin-pretreated Arabidopsis against virulent Pst. However, with the presence of catalase, the protective effects of quercetin on pathogen resistance to virulent Pst disappeared in Arabidopsis, suggesting that H2O2 may play a key role in plant defense responses. In addition, we confirmed that quercetin did not show any beneficial effect on pathogen-free leaves in Arabidopsis, indicating that pathogen challenge is also required to induce the defense responses in quercetin-pretreated Arabidopsis. Furthermore, strong defense responses have been observed in quercetin-pretreated Arabidopsis mutant jar1, ein2, and abi1-2 under Pst challenge, whereas no protective effect has been observed in quercetin-pretreated Arabidopsis mutant NahG and npr1. These findings indicate that quercetin induces the resistance to Pst in Arabidopsis via H2O2 burst and involvement of SA and NPR1. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Wu T.,Plant Growth and Defense Signaling Laboratory | Wu T.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Guo A.,Plant Growth and Defense Signaling Laboratory | Guo A.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 15 more authors.
Phytopathology | Year: 2010

Lumazine synthase (LS) catalyzes the penultimate reaction in the multistep riboflavin biosynthesis pathway, which is involved in plant defenses. Plant defenses are often subject to synergistic effects of jasmonic acid and ethylene whereas LS is a regulator of jasmonic acid signal transduction. However, little is known about whether the enzyme contributes to defense responses. To study the role of LS in plant pathogen defenses, we generated transgenic tobacco expressing the rice (Oryza sativa) LS gene, OsLS. OsLS was cloned and found to have strong identity with its homologues in higher plants and less homology to microbial orthologues. The OsLS protein localized to chloroplasts in three OsLS-expressing transgenic tobacco (LSETT) lines characterized as enhanced in growth and defense. Compared with control plants, LSETT had higher content of both riboflavin and the cofactors flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide. In LSETT, jasmonic acid and ethylene were elevated, the expression of defense-related genes was induced, levels of resistance to pathogens were enhanced, and resistance was effective to viral, bacterial, and oomycete pathogens. Extents of OsLS expression correlated with increases in flavin, jasmonic acid, and ethylene content, and correlated with increases in resistance levels, suggesting a role for OsLS in defense responses. © 2010 The American Phytopathological Society.

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