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Yang Z.-Y.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Yi T.-S.,Plant Germplasm and Genomics Center | Pan Y.-Z.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Gong X.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany
Journal of Systematics and Evolution | Year: 2012

The Hengduan Mountains region is considered to be an important reservoir and a differentiation center for temperate and alpine plants during the Cenozoic. To reveal the effects of extreme topography and climate on an organism's population genetic structure in this region, a phylogeographic study has been carried out for Ligularia vellerea. We sequenced two chloroplast DNA fragments, trnH-psbA and trnL-rpl32, for 157 individuals of 15 populations and a total of 14 haplotypes were identified. These haplotypes clustered into five clades and each of them wasmainly distributed in the restricted regions. A strong phylogeographic structure of this species was detected (NST = 0.851, GST = 0.713; NST > GST, P < 0.01). The strong population differentiation in L. vellerea could be attributed to the repeated glacial/interglacial cycles during the Pleistocene, which has been further enhanced by restricted gene flow caused by the complicated topography in the Hengduan Mountains region that formed during the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. © 2012 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Source

Luo Y.,CAS Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden | Guo Z.,Plant Germplasm and Genomics Center | Li L.,Southwest forestry University
Developmental Biology | Year: 2013

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators of growth and development in both plants and animals. Flowering is critical for the reproduction of angiosperms. Flower development entails the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive growth, floral organ initiation, and the development of floral organs. These developmental processes are genetically regulated by miRNAs, which participate in complex genetic networks of flower development. A survey of the literature shows that miRNAs, their specific targets, and the regulatory programs in which they participate are conserved throughout the plant kingdom. This review summarizes the role of miRNAs and their targets in the regulation of gene expression during the floral developmental phase, which includes the floral transition stage, followed by floral patterning, and then the development of floral organs. The conservation patterns observed in each component of the miRNA regulatory system suggest that these miRNAs play important roles in the evolution of flower development. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Zhang Y.-X.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Zhang Y.-X.,Plant Germplasm and Genomics Center | Zeng C.-X.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Zeng C.-X.,Plant Germplasm and Genomics Center | Li D.-Z.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2012

The monophyly of tribe Arundinarieae (the temperate woody bamboos) has been unequivocally recovered in previous molecular phylogenetic studies. In a recent phylogenetic study, 10 major lineages in Arundinarieae were resolved based on eight non-coding plastid regions, which conflicted significantly with morphological classifications both at the subtribal and generic levels. Nevertheless, relationships among and within the 10 lineages remain unclear. In order to further unravel the evolutionary history of Arundinarieae, we used the nuclear GBSSI gene sequences along with those of eight plastid regions for phylogenetic reconstruction, with an emphasis on Chinese species. The results of the plastid analyses agreed with previous studies, whereas 13 primary clades revealed in the GBSSI phylogeny were better resolved at the generic level than the plastid phylogeny. Our analyses also revealed many inconsistencies between the plastid DNA and the nuclear GBSSI trees. These results implied that the nuclear genome and the plastid genome had different evolutionary trajectories. The patterns of incongruence suggested that lack of informative characters, incomplete lineage sorting, and/or hybridization (introgression) could be the causes. Seven putative hybrid species were hypothesized, four of which are discussed in detail on the basis of topological incongruence, chromosome numbers, morphology, and distribution patterns, and those taxa probably resulted from homoploid hybrid speciation. Overall, our study indicates that the tribe Arundinarieae has undergone a complex evolution. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

Ling L.-Z.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Ling L.-Z.,Plant Germplasm and Genomics Center | Ling L.-Z.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhang S.-D.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Zhang S.-D.,Plant Germplasm and Genomics Center
Genetica | Year: 2012

The combinatorial control of one target by multiple miRNAs brings big challenges to elucidate its precise evolutionary mechanism. Squamosa promoter binding protein-like (SBP) gene family exhibits the different regulatory patterns, in which some members are only regulated by miR156 and others by miR156 and miR529. Here, we explored the different evolutionary patterns and rates between miR156 targets and miR529 ones in three species (moss, rice, and maize). Our work found that the miR529 targets were members of miR156 target dataset, indicative of cooperative control. Further phylogenetic analyses as well as gene structure features demonstrated that miR529 targets derived from a monophyletic branch of miR156 targets which evolved into two independent branches duo to the ancient gene duplication. Moreover, inspection of evolutionary rate parameters (dN/dS, dN and dS) for miR156 targets and miR529 ones revealed they were under different selection strength. MiR529 targets were more constraint by strong purifying selection and evolved conservatively with a slow rate. By contrast, miR156 targets evolved more rapidly and experienced more relaxed purifying selection, which may contribute to their functional diversification. Our results will enhance the understanding of different evolutionary fates of SBP-box genes regulated by the different numbers of miRNA families before functional studies. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Xu H.,Plant Germplasm and Genomics Center | Xu H.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Xu H.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Chen L.-J.,University of California at San Francisco | And 4 more authors.
Biotechnology Letters | Year: 2010

A novel EMBRYONGIC FLOWER2 gene, DlEMF2, was isolated from bamboo, Dendrocalamus latiflorus. It is 2518 bp in length encoding a protein of 629 amino acids. It was expressed in all organs and at a higher level in shoot tissue than in inflorescences. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing antisense DlEMF2 displayed a spectrum of early-flowering phenotypes. Quantitative real-time PCR experiments indicated that the antisense transgene DlEMF2 reduced endogenous AtEMF2 transcript levels leading to the flowering time reduction. Besides, transforming the bamboo DlEMF2 gene into Arabidopsis emf2-1 mutant could rescue phenotype in vegetative and reproductive developmental stages, which reveals that EMF2 has functional conservation between monocots and eudicots. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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