Plant Germplasm and Genomics Center

Kunming, China

Plant Germplasm and Genomics Center

Kunming, China
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Luo Y.,CAS Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden | Guo Z.,Plant Germplasm and Genomics Center | Li L.,Southwest forestry University
Developmental Biology | Year: 2013

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators of growth and development in both plants and animals. Flowering is critical for the reproduction of angiosperms. Flower development entails the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive growth, floral organ initiation, and the development of floral organs. These developmental processes are genetically regulated by miRNAs, which participate in complex genetic networks of flower development. A survey of the literature shows that miRNAs, their specific targets, and the regulatory programs in which they participate are conserved throughout the plant kingdom. This review summarizes the role of miRNAs and their targets in the regulation of gene expression during the floral developmental phase, which includes the floral transition stage, followed by floral patterning, and then the development of floral organs. The conservation patterns observed in each component of the miRNA regulatory system suggest that these miRNAs play important roles in the evolution of flower development. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Ling L.-Z.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Ling L.-Z.,Plant Germplasm and Genomics Center | Ling L.-Z.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhang S.-D.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Zhang S.-D.,Plant Germplasm and Genomics Center
Genetica | Year: 2012

The combinatorial control of one target by multiple miRNAs brings big challenges to elucidate its precise evolutionary mechanism. Squamosa promoter binding protein-like (SBP) gene family exhibits the different regulatory patterns, in which some members are only regulated by miR156 and others by miR156 and miR529. Here, we explored the different evolutionary patterns and rates between miR156 targets and miR529 ones in three species (moss, rice, and maize). Our work found that the miR529 targets were members of miR156 target dataset, indicative of cooperative control. Further phylogenetic analyses as well as gene structure features demonstrated that miR529 targets derived from a monophyletic branch of miR156 targets which evolved into two independent branches duo to the ancient gene duplication. Moreover, inspection of evolutionary rate parameters (dN/dS, dN and dS) for miR156 targets and miR529 ones revealed they were under different selection strength. MiR529 targets were more constraint by strong purifying selection and evolved conservatively with a slow rate. By contrast, miR156 targets evolved more rapidly and experienced more relaxed purifying selection, which may contribute to their functional diversification. Our results will enhance the understanding of different evolutionary fates of SBP-box genes regulated by the different numbers of miRNA families before functional studies. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Zhang Y.-X.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Zhang Y.-X.,Plant Germplasm and Genomics Center | Zeng C.-X.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Zeng C.-X.,Plant Germplasm and Genomics Center | Li D.-Z.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2012

The monophyly of tribe Arundinarieae (the temperate woody bamboos) has been unequivocally recovered in previous molecular phylogenetic studies. In a recent phylogenetic study, 10 major lineages in Arundinarieae were resolved based on eight non-coding plastid regions, which conflicted significantly with morphological classifications both at the subtribal and generic levels. Nevertheless, relationships among and within the 10 lineages remain unclear. In order to further unravel the evolutionary history of Arundinarieae, we used the nuclear GBSSI gene sequences along with those of eight plastid regions for phylogenetic reconstruction, with an emphasis on Chinese species. The results of the plastid analyses agreed with previous studies, whereas 13 primary clades revealed in the GBSSI phylogeny were better resolved at the generic level than the plastid phylogeny. Our analyses also revealed many inconsistencies between the plastid DNA and the nuclear GBSSI trees. These results implied that the nuclear genome and the plastid genome had different evolutionary trajectories. The patterns of incongruence suggested that lack of informative characters, incomplete lineage sorting, and/or hybridization (introgression) could be the causes. Seven putative hybrid species were hypothesized, four of which are discussed in detail on the basis of topological incongruence, chromosome numbers, morphology, and distribution patterns, and those taxa probably resulted from homoploid hybrid speciation. Overall, our study indicates that the tribe Arundinarieae has undergone a complex evolution. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Yang H.-M.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Yang H.-M.,Plant Germplasm and Genomics Center | Yang H.-M.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhang Y.-X.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2013

Arundinarieae is not only a taxonomically difficult group of bamboos, but also a troublesome one in molecular phylogenetics. In this study, the phylogeny of 50 species in Arundinarieae with an emphasis on Chimonocalamus was reconstructed, using four plastid regions (rpl32-trnL, trnT-trnL, rps16-trnQ and trnC-rpoB) and two nuclear genes (GBSSI and LEAFY). The plastid phylogeny was largely consistent with the previous studies, except that Ampelocalamus calcareus was newly recovered as lineage XI. The nuclear phylogeny of LEAFY had better resolution than the one of GBSSI. The close relationships among Ampelocalamus, Drepanostachyum and Himalayacalamus were retrieved by the nuclear datasets. Alpine Bashania, Chimonocalamus, Thamnocalamus, and species currently placed in Fargesia and Yushania formed a clade in the LEAFY and combined nuclear phylogenies. Some of the gene tree disparities revealed in previous studies were reconfirmed. Chimonocalamus was recovered as monophyletic by combining the nuclear genes, but as polyphyletic in plastid analyses. Insufficient informative characters, hybridization, plastid capture or incomplete plastid lineage sorting could be responsible for the incongruent phylogenetic positions of some species of Chimonocalamus. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Jiang W.-K.,Key Laboratory of Biodiversity and Biogeography | Jiang W.-K.,Plant Germplasm and Genomics Center | Liu Y.-L.,Plant Germplasm and Genomics Center | Liu Y.-L.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | And 5 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2013

The evolution of genes and genomes after polyploidization has been the subject of extensive studies in evolutionary biology and plant sciences. While a significant number of duplicated genes are rapidly removed during a process called fractionation, which operates after the whole-genome duplication (WGD), another considerable number of genes are retained preferentially, leading to the phenomenon of biased gene retention. However, the evolutionary mechanisms underlying gene retention after WGD remain largely unknown. Through genome-wide analyses of sequence and functional data, we comprehensively investigated the relationships between gene features and the retention probability of duplicated genes after WGDs in six plant genomes, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), poplar (Populus trichocarpa), soybean (Glycine max), rice (Oryza sativa), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and maize (Zea mays). The results showed that multiple gene features were correlated with the probability of gene retention. Using a logistic regression model based on principal component analysis, we resolved evolutionary rate, structural complexity, and GC3 content as the three major contributors to gene retention. Cluster analysis of these features further classified retained genes into three distinct groups in terms of gene features and evolutionary behaviors. Type I genes are more prone to be selected by dosage balance; type II genes are possibly subject to subfunctionalization; and type III genes may serve as potential targets for neofunctionalization. This study highlights that gene features are able to act jointly as primary forces when determining the retention and evolution ofWGD-derived duplicated genes in flowering plants. These findings thus may help to provide a resolution to the debate on different evolutionary models of gene fates after WGDs. © 2013 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

Yang Z.-Y.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Yi T.-S.,Plant Germplasm and Genomics Center | Pan Y.-Z.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Gong X.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany
Journal of Systematics and Evolution | Year: 2012

The Hengduan Mountains region is considered to be an important reservoir and a differentiation center for temperate and alpine plants during the Cenozoic. To reveal the effects of extreme topography and climate on an organism's population genetic structure in this region, a phylogeographic study has been carried out for Ligularia vellerea. We sequenced two chloroplast DNA fragments, trnH-psbA and trnL-rpl32, for 157 individuals of 15 populations and a total of 14 haplotypes were identified. These haplotypes clustered into five clades and each of them wasmainly distributed in the restricted regions. A strong phylogeographic structure of this species was detected (NST = 0.851, GST = 0.713; NST > GST, P < 0.01). The strong population differentiation in L. vellerea could be attributed to the repeated glacial/interglacial cycles during the Pleistocene, which has been further enhanced by restricted gene flow caused by the complicated topography in the Hengduan Mountains region that formed during the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. © 2012 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Zeng C.-X.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Zeng C.-X.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zeng C.-X.,Plant Germplasm and Genomics Center | Zhang Y.-X.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | And 7 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2010

The temperate bamboos (tribe Arundinarieae) are notorious for being taxonomically extremely difficult. China contains some of the world's greatest diversity of the tribe Arundinarieae, with most genera and species endemic. Previous investigation into phylogenetic relationships of the temperate bamboos revealed several major clades, but emphasis on the species-level relationships among taxa in North America and Japan. To further elucidate relationships among the temperate bamboos, a very broad sampling of Chinese representatives was examined. We produced 9463 bp of sequences from eight non-coding chloroplast regions for 146 species in 26 genera and 5 outgroups. The loci sequenced were atpI/H, psaA-ORF170, rpl32-trnL, rpoB-trnC, rps16-trnQ, trnD/T, trnS/G, and trnT/L. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference supported the monophyly of Arundinarieae. The two major subtribes, Arundinariinae and Shibataeinae, defined on the basis of different synflorescence types, were indicated to be polyphyletic. Most genera in this tribe were confirmed to be paraphyletic or polyphyletic. The cladograms suggest that Arundinarieae is divided into ten major lineages. In addition to six lineages suggested in a previous molecular study (Bergbamboes, the African alpine bamboos, Chimonocalamus, the Shibataea clade, the Phyllostachys clade, and the Arundinaria clade), four additional lineages were recovered in our results, each represented by a single species: Gaoligongshania megalothyrsa, Indocalamus sinicus, Indocalamus wilsonii, Thamnocalamus spathiflorus. Our analyses also indicate that (1) even more than 9000 bp of fast-evolving plastid sequence data cannot resolve the inter- and infra-relationships among and within the ten lineages of the tribe Arundinarieae; (2) an extensive sampling is indispensable for phylogeny reconstruction in this tribe, especially given that many genera appear to be paraphyletic or polyphyletic. Perhaps the ideal way to further illuminate relationships among the temperate bamboos is to sample multiple nuclear loci or whole chloroplast sequences in order to obtain sufficient variation. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Lu J.-M.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Lu J.-M.,Plant Germplasm and Genomics Center | Lu J.-M.,Smithsonian Institution | Li D.-Z.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Botany | Year: 2011

Premise of the study: Biogeographic analyses of ferns with an eastern Asian - North American disjunction are few. The Adiantum pedatum complex has such a disjunct distribution. The monophyly of the complex needs to be tested and diversification history of the four species needs to be reconstructed. Methods: Plastid (atpA, atpB, rbcL, trnL-F, and rps4-trnS) sequences of 100 accessions representing the biogeographic diversity of Adiantum were analyzed with parsimony and Bayesian inference. Biogeography of the Adiantum pedatum complex was inferred using programs DIVA and LAGRANGE. Divergence times of clades were estimated with the program BEAST. Key results: The A. pedatum complex is monophyletic and sister to the eastern Asian A. edentulum. Accessions of A. pedatum do not form a clade; instead three subgroups are recognizable. The clade of A. aleuticum and A. viridimontanum is nested within A. pedatum. The Asian A. myriosorum is sister to the A. pedatum - A. aleuticum clade. Both DIVA and LAGRANGE analyses suggest an eastern Asian origin of the A. pedatum complex. The age of the crown A. pedatum complex is dated to be at 4.27 (2.24 - 6.57) million years ago. Conclusions: The currently recognized eastern Asian - North American disjunct species A. pedatum needs to be segregated into three species, corresponding to populations in eastern North America, China, and Japan. The eastern Asian - North American disjunction in the complex is inferred to be the result of two intercontinental migrations, one from eastern Asia into North America in the late Tertiary and the other from North America back to eastern Asia in the Pleistocene. © 2011 Botanical Society of America.

PubMed | University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, EPHE Paris, CAS Kunming Institute of Botany and Plant Germplasm and Genomics Center
Type: | Journal: Molecular phylogenetics and evolution | Year: 2016

In this paper we investigate the biogeography of the temperate woody bamboos (Arundinarieae) using a densely-sampled phylogenetic tree of Bambusoideae based on six plastid DNA loci, which corroborates the previously discovered 12 lineages (I-XII) and places Kuruna as sister to the Chimonocalamus clade. Biogeographic analyses revealed that the Arundinarieae diversified from an estimated 12 to 14Mya, and this was followed by rapid radiation within the lineages, particularly lineages IV, V and VI, starting from c. 7-8Mya. It is suggested that the late Miocene intensification of East Asian monsoon may have contributed to this burst of diversification. The possibilities of the extant Sri Lankan and African temperate bamboo lineages representing basal elements could be excluded, indicating that there is no evidence to support the Indian or African route for migration of temperate bamboo ancestors to Asia. Radiations from eastern Asia to Africa, Sri Lanka, and to North America all are likely to have occurred during the Pliocene, to form the disjunct distribution of Arundinarieae we observe today. The two African lineages are inferred as being derived independently from Asian ancestors, either by overland migrations or long-distance dispersals. Beringian migration may explain the eastern Asian-eastern North American disjunction.

Xie L.,Plant Germplasm and Genomics Center | Xie L.,Beijing Forestry University | Yi T.-S.,Plant Germplasm and Genomics Center | Li R.,Plant Germplasm and Genomics Center | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2010

The evolution of the eastern Asian and eastern North American disjunction of the witch-hazel genus Hamamelis L. (Hamamelidaceae) was examined through phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses. Phylogenetic relationships of all Hamamelis species were reconstructed using parsimony and Bayesian analyses of sequence data from six plastid (trnL-F, psaA-ycf3, rps16, matK, atpB-rbcL, and psbA-trnH) and two nuclear (ITS and ETS) DNA regions. The phylogeny was then used to infer the biogeographic origin and subsequent diversification using both event-based (DIVA) and maximum likelihood (LAGRANGE) methods incorporating fossil data. The times of divergence within Hamamelis were estimated with the Bayesian approach using the program BEAST. A very low level of molecular variation was detected in both the plastid and the nuclear DNA regions within Hamamelis. The combined analyses resulted in a phylogeny of the genus with higher resolution and support values. Hamamelis was supported to be monophyletic with H. mollis from eastern China diverged first in the genus. All North American species formed a clade and was sister to the eastern Asian H. japonica. Within the North American clade, H. mexicana was sister to H. vernalis, and the recently described species H. ovalis was found to be closely related to the widespread species H. virginiana. The stem age of Hamamelis was estimated to be at the Eocene (51.2 mya, with 95% HDP: 49.0-54.6 mya), and the crown age of the genus was dated to be at the late Miocene (9.7 mya, with 95% HDP: 3.6-18.1 mya, or 10.6 mya, with 95% HDP: 4.2-19.6 mya). The disjunction between the eastern Asian and the eastern North American species was dated to be 7.1 mya (95% HDP: 3.1-13.6 mya) or 7.7 mya (95% HDP: 3.4-13.6 mya). Biogeographic analyses incorporating fossils resulted in more equally possible solutions at the stem lineage of Hamamelis than those including extant species only. Eastern Asia is inferred to be the most-likely area for the origin of Hamamelis. The current disjunction was due to the extinction in western North America and Europe from Eocene to late Miocene, and later migration from eastern Asia into North America. The Bering land bridge was hypothesized to have played an important role in the evolution of this disjunction. The current species diversity of the genus was the result of relatively recent diversification events during the late Miocene rather than long accumulation of lineages from the early Tertiary.

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