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Tsukuba, Japan

Matsubara K.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Yamanouchi U.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Nonoue Y.,Institute of Society for Techno Innovation of Agriculture | Sugimoto K.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | And 3 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2011

Oryza sativa (rice) flowers in response to photoperiod, and is a facultative short-day (SD) plant. Under SD conditions, flowering is promoted through the activation of FT-like genes (rice florigens) by Heading date 1 (Hd1, a rice CONSTANS homolog) and Early heading date 1 (Ehd1, with no ortholog in the Arabidopsis genome). On the other hand, under long-day (LD) conditions, flowering is delayed by the repressive function of Hd1 on FT-like genes and by downregulation of Ehd1 by the flowering repressor Ghd7 - a unique pathway in rice. We report here that an early heading date 3 (ehd3) mutant flowered later than wild-type plants, particularly under LD conditions, regardless of the Hd1-deficient background. Map-based cloning revealed that Ehd3 encodes a nuclear protein that contains a putative transcriptional regulator with two plant homeodomain (PHD) finger motifs. To identify the role of Ehd3 within the gene regulatory network for rice flowering, we compared the transcript levels of genes related to rice flowering in wild-type plants and ehd3 mutants. Increased transcription of Ghd7 under LD conditions and reduced transcription of downstream Ehd1 and FT-like genes in the ehd3 mutants suggested that Ehd3 normally functions as an LD downregulator of Ghd7 in floral induction. Furthermore, Ehd3 ghd7 plants flowered earlier and show higher Ehd1 transcript levels than ehd3 ghd7 plants, suggesting a Ghd7-independent role of Ehd3 in the upregulation of Ehd1. Our results demonstrate that the PHD-finger gene Ehd3 acts as a promoter in the unique genetic pathway responsible for photoperiodic flowering in rice. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Zhou Y.,CAS Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology | Lu D.,CAS Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology | Li C.,CAS Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology | Luo J.,CAS Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology | And 9 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2012

Seed shattering is an important agricultural trait in crop domestication. SH4 (for grain shattering quantitative trait locus on chromosome 4) and qSH1 (for quantitative trait locus of seed shattering on chromosome 1) genes have been identified as required for reduced seed shattering during rice (Oryza sativa) domestication. However, the regulatory pathways of seed shattering in rice remain unknown. Here, we identified a seed shattering abortion1 (shat1) mutant in a wild rice introgression line. The SHAT1 gene, which encodes an APETALA2 transcription factor, is required for seed shattering through specifying abscission zone (AZ) development in rice. Genetic analyses revealed that the expression of SHAT1 in AZ was positively regulated by the trihelix transcription factor SH4. We also identified a frameshift mutant of SH4 that completely eliminated AZs and showed nonshattering. Our results suggest a genetic model in which the persistent and concentrated expression of active SHAT1 and SH4 in the AZ during early spikelet developmental stages is required for conferring AZ identification. qSH1 functioned downstream of SHAT1 and SH4, through maintaining SHAT1 and SH4 expression in AZ, thus promoting AZ differentiation. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

Zhu B.-F.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences | Si L.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences | Wang Z.,Plant Genome Center | Wang Z.,China National Rice Research Institute | And 14 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2011

The genetic mechanism involved in a transition from the black-colored seed hull of the ancestral wild rice (Oryza rufipogon and Oryza nivara) to the straw-white seed hull of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) during grain ripening remains unknown. We report that the black hull of O. rufipogon was controlled by the Black hull4 (Bh4) gene, which was fine-mapped to an 8.8-kb region on rice chromosome 4 using a cross between O. rufipogon W1943 (black hull) and O. sativa indica cv Guangluai 4 (straw-white hull). Bh4 encodes an amino acid transporter. A 22-bp deletion within exon 3 of the bh4 variant disrupted the Bh4 function, leading to the straw-white hull in cultivated rice. Transgenic study indicated that Bh4 could restore the black pigment on hulls in cv Guangluai 4 and Kasalath. Bh4 sequence alignment of all taxa with the outgroup Oryza barthii showed that the wild rice maintained comparable levels of nucleotide diversity that were about 70 times higher than those in the cultivated rice. The results from the maximum likelihood Hudson-Kreitman-Aguade test suggested that the significant reduction in nucleotide diversity in rice cultivars could be caused by artificial selection. We propose that the straw-white hull was selected as an important visual phenotype of nonshattered grains during rice domestication _ 2011 American Society of Plant Biologists.

Koseki M.,Plant Genome Center | Kitazawa N.,Plant Genome Center | Yonebayashi S.,Plant Genome Center | Maehara Y.,Plant Genome Center | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Genetics and Genomics | Year: 2010

Cold tolerance at the seedling stage (CTSS) is an important trait affecting stable rice production in temperate climates and areas of high elevation. In this study, 331 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were developed and used along with phenotypic evaluation to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with CTSS from a mapping population of 184 F2 plants derived from a cold tolerant wild rice, W1943 (Oryza rufipogon), and a sensitive indica cultivar, Guang-lu-ai 4 (GLA4). Three QTLs were detected on chromosomes 3, 10 and 11. A major locus, qCtss11 (QTL for cold tolerance at seedling stage), was located on the long arm of chromosome 11 explaining about 40% of the phenotypic variation. Introduction of the W1943 allele of qCtss11 to the GLA4 genetic background increased CTSS. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic assessment of advanced backcross progenies, qCtss11 was dissected as a single Mendelian factor. A high-resolution genetic map was constructed using 23 markers across the qCtss11 locus. As a result, qCtss11 was fine mapped to a 60-kb candidate region defined by marker AK24 and GP0030 on chromosome 11, in which six genes were annotated. Expression and resequence analyses of the six candidates supported the hypothesis that Os11g0615600 and/or Os11g0615900 are causal gene(s) of the CTSS. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

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